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  • Created by: Faith16
  • Created on: 08-02-16 19:43
How many planets are there orbiting the Sun?
8 (Inner planets- Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars) (Outer planets- Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune)
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What else apart from planets orbit the Sun?
Dwarf planets, comets and dust.
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How old is the solar system?
About 5 thousand million years old
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How did the solar system form?
Sun was made (star sequence) then clouds of hydrogen, helium and heavier elements started to clump together to create planets.
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What are the oldest rocks on Earth and how old are they?
Meteorites which are about 4500 million years old.
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What are asteroids?
Smallish lumps of rubble and rock
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What are comets?
Balls of rock, dust and ice. As the comet approaches the Sun its ice melts leaving a bright tail of gas and debris.
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How many stars are in the Milky Way?
Thousands of millions
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What are light years?
The distance that light travels through a vacuum in one year (measurement of distance NOT time)
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Put these in order of smallest to largest: diameter of Earth, diameter of Earths orbit, diameter of Sun, Diameter of Solar System, distance from Milky way to nearest galaxy, distance from Sun to nearest star and diameter of Milky way.
Diameter of the Earth, diameter of the Sun, diameter of the Earth's orbit, diameter of the Solar System, distance from the Sun to the nearest star, diameter of Milky way and distance from the Milky way to the nearest galaxy.
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What are the ages of the Earth, Sun and Universe?
Earth- 5 thousand million , Sun- 5 thousand million and Universe- 14 thousand million.
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What is parallax?
When something appears to move when you look at it from different places.
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Why can't astronomers use brightness to measure the distance of stars and what do they use instead?
Because the star could be close to earth but not bright or far away and very bright (use radiation to measure instead)
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Why did scientists put Hubble Space Telescope in space?
To stop light pollution making it hard to see dim objects.
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How fast does electromagnetic radiation travel?
300 000 km per second.
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How long does it take for the radiation from the Sun to hit Earth?
8 minutes.
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How far away is the nearest star to us and what does this tell us?
About 4.2 light years away so its light takes 4.2 years to reach us.
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What is red shift?
When a galaxy moves away for us the wave length of the light changes causing it to become redder.
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What does red shift tell us?
The more distant a galaxy is the faster it moves away from us.
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How did the Big Bang happen?
All the matter and energy in the Universe must of been compressed into a very small space then exploded and started to expanding and is still expanding to this day.
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Why is it hard to determine how fast the Universe is expanding?
Large distance- hard to measure accurately, motion of objects (galaxies)- far away, assumptions on motion and pollution in the way, Mass- appears to be invisible (doesn't glow like stars).
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What provides evidence that rocks are always moving?
Fossils
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How are rocks formed?
Lava from a volcano sets to create a new rock
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How does the rock cycle work?
Particles eroded from rocks and get washed into sea-settle as sediment. Sediment crush together to form sedimentary rocks. Pushed to surface or descended into heat and pressure inside Earth. Then cycle starts again.
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What evidence is there to suggest continents were joined?
Plant and animal fossils similar on opposite sides of Atlantic Ocean(e.g. fossil of sea creates on Alps). Continents fit together like puzzle pieces (e.g. South America and Africa)
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Who is Alfred Wegener and what was his theory?
That all the continents were once joined in a 'supercontinent' called Pangaea. This theory was that they had separated due to continental drift.
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Why was Wegener's theory not accepted?
His explanation of how the 'drifting' happened wasn't convincing- caused by tidal force and the Earths rotation. Also Wegener was not a geologist he was a meteorologist.
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What evidence in 1950 suggested that Wegener was right?
The Mid-Atlantic ridge had evidence that magma had risen through the sea floor and solidifies to create underwater mountains (sea floor spreading few cm per year).
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What other evidence suggested Wegener was right?
Magnetic orientation of rocks- magma comes from gap iron particles align themselves with the Earth's magnetic field (as it cools it sets in position). Every half million years the Earths magnetic field swaps direction (rocks have bands)
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What are the different layers of the earth?
Crust ( thin- about 20 km), mantle (properties of a solid expect that it can flow slowly), outer core (liquid) and the inner core (solid made out of mostly iron and nickel)
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What are the two types of crust?
Continental crust (forming the land) and oceanic crust (under oceans)
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What causes the tectonic plates to drift?
Convection current in the mantle which is caused by the heat from the core and mantle.
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What can happen when a tectonic plate moves?
Earthquakes (more often at the edges of plates), Volcanoes (happen at boundaries- plates meet magma rises), Mountains are formed (e.g. Himalayas formed by India crashing into Eurasian plate) and contribute to rock cycle (pushing down or up)
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What are seismic waves and how are they measured?
Wave motions produced by earthquakes which travel on the surface and inside the earth. Measured using a seismograph.
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What are the two different types of seismic waves?
P-Waves and S-Waves.
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What are the properties of P-Waves?
Travel through solids and liquids, faster than S-waves, they are longitudinal.
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What are the properties of S-Waves?
Only travel through solids, slower than P-waves and they are transverse.
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What happens to seismic waves when they meet a boundary?
They reflect.
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What causes seismic waves to change speed?
As the properties (e.g. density) of the mantle and core change (curve- gradual change of speed, kink- sudden change of speed)
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What do seismic waves tell us about the Earth?
S-waves are not detected to go through the core (outer core liquid), S-waves travel though mantle (solid), P-waves travel faster in the middle of the core (solid) and halfway through P-waves suddenly change direction (sudden change in properties)
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What do waves carry?
Transfer energy (in direction that wave travels)
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What is the amplitude?
The distance from the rest position to the crest or trough- bigger the amplitude the more energy the wave has.
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What is the wave length?
Length of a full cycle of the wave (crest to crest)
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What is the frequency?
The number of complete waves passing a certain point per second OR the number of waves produced by a source each second (measured in hertz)
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What is the formula for the distance of the wave?
distance (m) = speed (m/s) x time (s)
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What is a transverse wave and give some examples.
In transverse waves the vibrations are at 90 degrees to the direction of travel of the wave (e.g. light and all other EM waves, waves on strings and S-waves)
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What is a longitudinal wave and give some examples.
In longitudinal waves the vibrations are along the same direction as the wave is traveling (e.g. sound, ultrasound and P-waves)
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What is the equation for speed?
Speed (m/s) = Frequency (Hz) x Wavelength (m)
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