Oxidative Phosphorylation

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  • Created by: Beth
  • Created on: 08-02-14 17:44
Oxidative Phosphorylation (def)
The formation of ATP by adding a phosphate group to ADP, in the presence of oxygen, which is the final electron acceptor
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What happens when reduced NAD and reduced FAD are reoxidised?
They donate hydrogen atoms (2H) which are spilt into protons(2H+) and electrons (2e-)
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First Electron Acceptor
NADH dehydrogenase (accepts electrons from reduced NAD)
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Protons
Go into solution in the matrix (mitochondria)
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Electron Transport Chain
The electrons are passed along a chain of electron carriers and then donated to molecular oxygen, the final electron acceptor
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Chemiosmosis (1)
Energy released in the electron transport chain is used by coenzymes to pump protons across the inter membrane space
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Chemiosmosis (2)
This builds a pH/electrochemical gradient (Proton Gradient)
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Chemiosmosis (3)
Hydrogen ions can only diffuse through ion channels, which are associated with enyzme ATP synthase
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Chemiosmosis (def)
The flow of hydrogen ions through a partially permeable membrane (down the diffusion gradient)
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Oxidative Phosphorylation (1)
As protons flow through an ATP synthase enzyme, they drive the rotation of part of the enzyme and join ADP and inorganic phosphate to form ATP
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Oxidative Phosphorylation (2)
The electrons are passed from the last electron carrier in the chain to molecular oxygen, which is the final electron acceptor
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Oxidative Phosphorylation (3)
Hydrogen ions also join so that oxygen is reduced to water... 4H+ + 4e- + O2 = 2H2O
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How much ATP is made before Oxidative Phosphorylation?
2 gained = Glycolysis (substrate level phosphorylation), 2 made = Krebs cycle (substrate level phosphorylation)
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How many ATP molecules can be produced per molecule of reduced NAD?
2.6
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What is the total yield of ATP, when combined with the ATP from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle?
30
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Why is the theoretical yield of ATP rarely achieved? (1)
Some protons leak across the mitochondrial membrane, reducing the number of protons to generate the proton motive force
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Why is the theoretical yield of ATP rarely achieved? (2)
Some ATP is used to actively transport pyruvate into the mitochondria
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Why is the theoretical yield of ATP rarely achieved? (3)
Some ATP is used for the shuttle to bring hydrogen from reduced NAD made during glycolysis, in the cytoplasm, into the mitochondria
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happens when reduced NAD and reduced FAD are reoxidised?

Back

They donate hydrogen atoms (2H) which are spilt into protons(2H+) and electrons (2e-)

Card 3

Front

First Electron Acceptor

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Protons

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Electron Transport Chain

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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