Oxidative phosphorylation and chemiosmosis

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  • Created by: Steff06
  • Created on: 11-06-16 09:54
Define oxidative phosphorylation
The formation of ATP by adding a phosphate group to ADP in the presence of oxygen which is the final electron acceptor.
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What is embedded in the inner mitochondrial membranes in oxidative phosphorylation?
Electron carriers.
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Describe the structure of the membranes.
Membranes folded into cristae, increasing SA for electron carriers and ATP synthase enzymes.
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When are reduced NAD and reduced FAD reoxidised?
Reoxidised when they donate hydrogen atoms which are split into protons and electrons to the electron carriers.
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What is the 1st electron carrier to accept electrons from reduced NAD?
A protein complex - NADH dehydrogenase.
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What does cytochrome C show?
Shows a high degree of conservation.
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What are the carriers on the cristae?
Conjugated proteins called cytochromes arranged within the cristae membranes in order of their decreasing energy levels.
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What is oygen's role?
Acts as the terminal electron acceptor.
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What is the 1st step in oxidative phosphorylation?
Reduced NAD is dehydrogenated and loses H+ ions. H+ ions are split into protons and electrons.
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What happens to the electrons?
The electrons pass down the electron transport chain and lose energy as they do so.
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What is this energy picked up by?
Energy picked up by the proteins which use it to pump the protons into the intermembrane space.
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What does this produce?
Produces an electrochemical gradient.
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What do the protons do?
Protons diffuse through ATP synthase back into the mitochondrial matrix.
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What will the protons then do?
Protons bind with electrons and oxygen to produce water.
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How much ATP is made before oxidative phsophorylation?
2 in glycolysis and 2 in the Krebs Cycle.
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When is ATP made in oxidative phosphorylation?
When the reduced NAD and FAD molecules are reoxidised.
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How many molecules of reduced NAD and FAD are made in glycolysis?
2 reduced NAD, 0 reduced FAD.
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How many molecules of reduced NAD and FAD are produced in the link reaction?
2 reduced NAD, 0 reduced FAD.
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How many molecules of reduced NAD and reduced FAD are produced in the Krebs Cycle?
6 reduced NAD, 2 reduced FAD.
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What will the reduced NAD and FAD provide for oxidative phosphorylation?
They will both provide electrons to the electron transport chain.
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What will reduced NAD also provide?
Hydrogen ions that contribute to build up of proton gradient for chemiosmosis.
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How many molecules of ATP can the 10 molecules of reduced NAD theoretically produce?
Theoretically produce 26 molecules of ATP.
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What is the total theoretical yield of ATP molecules?
30
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Why are 30 ATP molecules never actually produced? (3)
Some protons leak across the membrane, some ATP is used to actively transport pyruvate into the mitochondria, some ATP is used is used to bring hydrogen from reduced NAD into the mitochondria.
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Card 2

Front

What is embedded in the inner mitochondrial membranes in oxidative phosphorylation?

Back

Electron carriers.

Card 3

Front

Describe the structure of the membranes.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When are reduced NAD and reduced FAD reoxidised?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the 1st electron carrier to accept electrons from reduced NAD?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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