Overview of F211 test

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  • Created on: 25-05-16 19:32
Describe the structure of centrioles
Small tubes of protein fibres
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Give an example of active transport (crossing membranes - active)
Calcium ion movement in muscles
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What is the role of neutrophils?
Ingest invading microorganisms
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What do the lungs produce and why?
Produce a surfactant so alveoli do not collapse due to cohesive forces between water.
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Which are narrower, the bronchi or trachea?
The bronchi are narrower than the trachea.
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What does pulmonary circulation do?
Picks up oxygen and carries it to the lungs.
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What does systematic circulation do?
Carries oxygen around the body.
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What causes the atrioventricular valves to open?
When the pressure in the ventricles drops below the pressure in the atria.
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When do the semilunar valves open?
When pressure in the ventricles is higher than in the arteries.
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What causes the semilunar valves to close?
When pressure in ventricles is lower than in arteries.
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How would an eletrocardiogram show myocardial infarction?
Elevation of the ST section.
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How would atrial fibrillation be distinguished on an electrocardiogram?
Small, unclear P waves.
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How would an electrocardiogram should abnormal ventricular hypertrophy?
Deep S waves.
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How does the heart pump blood to the head and what is this?
By peristalsis where muscular contractions of muscle layers of gut squeeze food along.
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What do the veins contain and what do they do?
Contain valves which help blood to flow back to the heart. Prevent flow in opposite direction.
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What is the role of the tissue fluid?
To transport oxygen and nutrients to the cells and carbon dioxide and wastes back to the blood.
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What combined effect helps to move fluid back into the capillary?
Combined effect of hydrostatic pressure in tissue fluid and osmotic force of plasma proteins.
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Where does some of the tissue fluid go?
Drained into lymphatic system
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What is the role of lymph nodes?
To filter any bacteria or foreign material from the lymph fluid.
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Where does haemoglobin take oxygen from?
The red blood cells
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Why doesn't haemoglobin readily take up oxygen at low partial pressures?
Because haem groups are in the centre of haemoglobin, making it hard for oxygen to reach them.
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What does conformational change allow?
Allows more oxygen to associate with other haem groups.
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What is the Bohr effect?
More carbon dioxide, so more hydrogen which will make oxyhaemoglobin release more oxygen and the change in shape in oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve.
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How does the shape of the dissociation curve change when there is more CO2?
Shifts down and to the right.
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What surrounds the vascular bundles?
Sheath of endodermis.
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What happens when lignification is not complete?
Bordered pits are produced.
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Where are the root hair cells found?
In the epidermis.
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What is the endodermis?
Special cells with a waterproof ***** in (Casparian *****).
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What are present in the cell surface membranes to actively transport nitrate ions?
Transporter proteins.
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Describe root pressure
Endodermis moves minerals into xylem which forces water into xylem.
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Describe transpiration pull
Cohesion holds molecules in a long chain which creates the transpiration stream. Pull from above creates tension in column of water (cohesion-tension theory).
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Describe capillary action
Adhesion attracts water molecules to sides of xylem vessel and pulls water up the sides.
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Describe the process of transpiration
Osmosis from xylem to mesophyll cells. Evaporation from mesophyll cell surface to intercellular spaces. Diffusion of water vapour from intercellular spaces out through stomata.
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Describe the effect of temperature on transpiration (3)
Increases evaporation, rate of diffusion and decreases water vapour potential gradient in air.
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What is the effect of higher humidity on transpiration?
Less water lost as smaller water vapour potential gradient between air spaces in leaf and air outside.
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What effect does wind have on transpiration?
More wind maintains high water vapour potential gradient.
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How does spongy mesophyll on xerophytes help to reduce water loss?
Reduces surface area exposed to air in leaves.
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How do pits reduce water loss in xerophytes?
Trap saturated air with water vapour which reduces potential gradient.
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What effect does rolling leaves have on water loss in xerophytes?
Lower epidermis is not exposed to atmosphere which reduces potential gradient.
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In translocation, what do cotransporter proteins allow?
Cotransporter proteins allow hydrogen ions to bring sucrose into companion cells.
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Where does sucrose go once it is in the companion cells?
Diffuses into sieve tube elements.
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What does this diffusion cause?
Sucrose reduces water potential in sieve tube elements.
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After the water potential is reduced, what moves into the sieve tube elements and by what process?
Water moves in by osmosis
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What does water moving in increase?
Increases hydrostatic pressure.
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What can sucrose be converted into at the sink?
Can be converted into starch for storage or used in respiration.
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What does this conversion cause?
Sucrose concentration to be reduced.
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Where will the sucrose move to?
Move into the surrounding cells by diffusion/active transport.
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What will this increase?
Increases water potential in sieve tube elements
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What will an increase in this water potential cause?
Causes water to move into surrounding cells by osmosis.
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What will this reduce at the sink?
Reduces hydrostatic pressure.
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What is mass flow?
Water carries sucrose and assimilates (e.g. amino acids). These enter phloem at the source, move down hydrostatic pressure gradient and leave the phloem at the sink.
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What can some of the fibres in the cytoskeleton do?
Can cause the movement in white blood cells. Move some organelles around in cells.
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What are other fibres known as?
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What is the role of microtubules?
To move an organism through a liquid or to waft a liquid past the cell.
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Provide examples of things moved by proteins on microtubules?
How chromosomes are moved during mitosis. How vesicles move from ER to golgi apparatus.
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What are these proteins known as and how do they function?
Microtubule motors. They use ATP to drive these movements.
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Card 2


Give an example of active transport (crossing membranes - active)


Calcium ion movement in muscles

Card 3


What is the role of neutrophils?


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Card 4


What do the lungs produce and why?


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Card 5


Which are narrower, the bronchi or trachea?


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