Other Thinkers

Curran
need a more historically conscious view which emphasises change and evolving. Natural law is too static
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Suzanne Uniacke
doctrine of double effect… she uses the example of blowing somebody up and claiming they had no intention to kill
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Hugo Grotius
natural law as rationally distinguishable principles to follow
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G.E Moore
natural law depends on defining what's good. This is a naturalistic fallacy, there cannot be a way of defining good because it is analysable
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Karl Bath
influenced Fletcher. He said actions can be morally wrong but there is a chance it could be right to break a moral law in some cases eg abortion
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Robinson
‘It will all descend into moral chaos’- gives each person too much authority (shouldn’t have more than the Bible/Church)
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William Barclay 1/5
Fletcher uses extreme examples that are not applicable to ordinary life
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2/5
Humans need laws, Fletcher is too optimistic about humans
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3/5
Hard for individuals to make their own decisions because we are always swayed by emotions/fear e.t.c
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4/5
Law is the ‘distillation of experience’. Over time we have learned lessons on what is the best thing to do in situations, and so the most loving thing to do is to follow the law
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5/5
If we were all like Jesus then the principle of agape love would work, but we are not so it doesn’t
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Vincent MacNamara
if somebody has a Christian faith (Fletcher did at the time of creating situation ethics) it is bound to have implications on your life and decision making… to an extent your ethics will be Christian
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Rudolf Buttman
Jesus had no other ethics except ‘love thy neighbour’ and so it is the highest end
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C.S Lewis
Charity is the love that serves regardless of changing circumstances, it is one of the greatest and most specifically Christian loves
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Pope Pius XII
situation ethics is un-christian because it breaks the laws of Christianity
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St Paul
The idea of ‘do evil so that good may come’ is fake because the ends never justify the means… contradicts Fletcher's principle that ‘love is the only means’
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John Macquarrie
it’s fundamentally individual and can’t be used within a society or community
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Alasdair MacIntyre
universal principle can be used to justify practically anything
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W D Ross
some circumstances conflict each other. Claims we should take duties prima facie (first sight), so follow Kantian ethics unless a conflicting duty appears and makes a greater claim
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Philippa Foot
Kant’s theory doesn’t help the situation of the double effect
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Plato
our inclinations should not rule over reason, but should conform to it
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Allen Wood
Kant’s duties to others include loving and respecting others as individuals and equals which is important
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Nagel and Williams
argue that Kant’s theory ignores moral luck. Someone may think they are doing good by carrying out an action when in fact it causes harm, but if somebody else did the exact same thing it would lead to a good result
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Benjamin Constant
without white lies society wouldn’t function (goes against universalising lying)
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John Stuart Mill
Answered the criticism of Bentham's theory of sadistic acts by saying the quality of pleasure is important
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Sidgwick
Answered Kant’s criticism that the consequence of an action can’t make the action right. The intention to bring good is important
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Peter Singer
He realised that different people have different ideas about what ‘happiness’ is. He came up with preference utilitarianism. He also recognised animals as important
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H.J. McCloskey
it ignores justice- if an innocent man was to go to prison to prevent others from committing the crime
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Bernard Williams
We need to commit to justifying any morality. He argues people do not judge the morality of an action based on its consequence- we base it on the action itself
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Jack Kevorkian
A doctor who has taken lives and argues that ‘the highest principle in medical ethics… is personal autonomy’
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Hans Kung
‘all merciful God, who has given men and women freedom and responsibility for their lives, has also left to dying people the responsibility for making a conscientious decision about the manner and times of their death’
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Jonathan Glover
There are steps to be taken concerning voluntary euthanasia
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What are these steps? 1/3
-Helper should know the decision is serious and not the result of a temporary state
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2/3
-Helper should make sure the decision is reasonable and that the life is not worth living
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3/3
Circumstances at which the request is being made- are they likely to change?
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Peter Singer
Desire for control over how we die marks a turn away from the sanctity of life, citizens in modern democracies more and more want this desire
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Joseph Fletcher
There are no moral standards when euthanasia is considered, only the patient's situation and condition need to be considered
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J.S Mill
‘On Liberty’ book. A liberal society avoids ‘tyrannising’ the minority, and maximises personal freedoms, an expression of liberalism is the ability to take one's life without interference from the state
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David Hume
if a person ‘withdraws’ from society and takes his own life he ‘does no harm’ to society. He is simply exercising his rights
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Jerome Wernow
Quality of life is bad because...
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1/3
-It leads to a slippery slope whereby killing begins with good intentions and then results in less good intentions as time goes on
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2/3
-It reduces a person’s autonomy. Doctors can refuse treatment because they think the life is no longer worth living
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3/3
-It fails to treat humans with dignity
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Daniel Maguire
The use of euthanasia to shorten the time taken to die by not prolonging life is legitimate because we can do this without denying the sanctity of life
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Martin Amis
euthanasia booths should be established on street corners for pensioners to end their lives
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Dr Rachels
passive and active euthanasia are the same thing because when withholding treatment you may as well be administering a lethal injection. Both lead to humane deaths and so there is no moral distinction
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Milton Friedman
Businesses have no other responsibility but to make a profit.
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Margaret Thatcher
If businesses were only producing profit it would ‘trickle down’ to everyone in the country
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Julian Baggini
Growth of CSR is linked to responding to customer concerns about where their goods came from. They will focus on what the customers think is the most ethical thing, not what the most ethical thing actually is
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Aristotle
The idea of ‘polis’ (community) is greater than the good of the individual (more to a business than greed and making money)
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Cardinal Vincent Nichols
'A blueprint for better business'
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Name his 7 traits that make a better business 1/7
-Human dignities (humans have rights to be respected)
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2/7
-The common good (in the interests of everyone)
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3/7
-Solidarity- (unity and agreement)
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4/7
-Subsidiarity- (social and political problems dealt with at local points)
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5/7
-Fraternity- (corresponds with common interests)
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6/7
-Reciprocity- (exchanging things with others for mutual benefit)
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7/7
-Sustainability- (maintaining good for the environment)
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Robert C Solomon
Takes an Aristotelian approach. A company should function like an individual embedded within a community and so it should contain values eg honesty
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Crane and Matten
A stakeholder is ‘individual or group which either: is harmed by, or benefits from, the corporation. Or, whose rights can violated, or have to be respected, by the corporation’
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Norman Bowie
whistleblowing violates a ‘prima facie duty of loyalty to ones employer’. So if whistleblowing turned out to serve the public good it would be the right thing to do, but it’s more ethical to make every effort to solve the problem through following pr
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John Locke
Businesses have a moral right to anything they’ve developed, researched and paid for. This could be used to show that whistleblowing is immoral because it releases information about a company that could benefit a rival company
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Bangladeshi Factory
(Rana Plaza)- collapsed in 2013 and killed over 1,100 people. It supplied companies like Primark. On investigation it was found the top floors wew built without any permit or reinforcement for the heavy machinery
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Lord Sugar
Businesses being ethical is a ‘hook’ to make businesses stand out
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Erin Brockovich
In 1933 was instrumental in building a case against the Pacific Gas and Electric company about contaminated water
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Richard Dawkins
transcendent world is silly, we can still study the world with all its changes and imperfections
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A.J Ayer
We talk of good and bad as an emotional reaction- it’s not referring to any real knowledge
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Aristotle
No scientific evidence we need to use empirical evidence and sense to find out how the world works
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Bertrand Russell
in response to the four causes- some things are just the result of chance and ‘the universe is just there, and that’s all’
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Richard Dawkins
No part to a human that isn’t physical and personality and consciousness are just chemical reactions in the brain
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Bertrand Russell
In regard to a Prime Mover, ‘The idea of cause is not applicable’
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Camus and Satre
thought it was ridiculous to suppose that the universe had any meaning or purpose. (Sartre said the universe was ‘gratuitous’)Therefore there was no final cause for the universe.
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Descartes
Can not rely on experience, the only thing he could be sure of was that he was thinking
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Socrates
soul must continue living, it’s the essence of life and so it’s contradictory for it to die
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Plato
Dualist (body is temporary and physical). Uses Meno (slave boy with no education who could solve complicated puzzle) to show we have lived in realm of forms. Myth of Er whose soul went on a journey of punishment and reward, souls then given a liquid
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Aristotle
Continuing identity that makes us who we are as the soul. 3 types- (vegetative, perceptive, higher-degree). Soul is the formal, efficient and formal cause of the person. ‘The soul is in some sense the principle of animal life’
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Rene Descartes
‘hyperbolic doubt’- he doubted until he came to a ‘first certainty’ (one thing he could be sure of) was that he existed as a thinker (‘I think therefore I am’)
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Gilbert Ryle 1/2
any talk of a self/soul is a category mistake (mistake in the way we use language). Watching all the players and asking ‘where’s the team spirit’, it can only be seen within the game and can’t exist without it.
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Richard 2/2
This is the same way a mind isn’t something extra to the human body but is part of it. Separate mind and body is like a ‘ghost in the machine’ as if some kind of machine is being operated by an invisible mind
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Skinner
Human thoughts are learned behaviour through conditioning and reinforcing
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Bennett
Argues that Skinner over simplifies human nature
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Watson and Rayner
banged iron bar every time they showed Albert a white rat, he use to cry at the iron bar but had no problem with the rat, in the end they only had to show him the rat and he would be scared
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Richard Swinburne
That human beings are simply animals and learn like them
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Richard Swinburne
We have fundamental aspects of our personalities that cannot be explained in physical terms. The fact we can recognise this as a separate substance shows it must be able to survive on its own
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Antony Flew
Soul outliving the body is nonsensical (like cheshire cat in Alice and wonderland). Soul as a substance is a misuse of the word. Referring to a mind/soul/personality is referring to the behaviour of the physical person
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Peter Geach
How would a disembodied soul see the realm of the forms. Experience is linked to the body and the senses
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G.E.M Anscombe
‘bodily act is an act of man qua spirit’ (the act of a human as a whole). Bodily actions only describe how something is working and not how. The mind is part of the body, and the mind can’t exist without the body and vice versa
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Keith Ward
Soul makes us human and not simply animal. Without it we lack final purpose
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Richard Dawkins
No such thing as a soul, humans are ‘survival machines- robot vehicles blindly programmed to preserve the selfish molecules known as genes’.
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Explain his ideas concerning soul one and soul two
He spoke of ‘soul one’ (capable of knowing God and surviving death- he rejected this one). But he agreed with ‘soul two’ (more Aristotelian approach referring to someone's individuality and personality
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Aquinas 1/2
nature seems to have an order to it. If we saw an arrow flying towards a target we know somebody must have fire it, eg when we look at inanimate objects we conclude the ‘guiding hand’ of God is behind it
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Aristotle quote
‘whatever lacks knowledge cannot move towards an end, unless it be directed by some being endowed with knowledge and intelligence… and this being we will call God’
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William Paley
Looking at a watch on a heath and observe how well it works to conclude someone must have made it. We do not have to seen the watch being made to see that it must have been designed and it doesn’t have to be perfect to know it must have been designed
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David Hume
-Don’t have enough knowledge of the world to determine designer, we only have experience of man made things.-The design argument isn’t strong enough to conclude the existence of God
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David Hume Quote
‘Humans lack sufficient knowledge and experience of the creation of the world to conclude that there is only one designer. We only have experience of man made things’.
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Another David Hume quote relating to problem of evil
‘The existence of evil suggests that the designer is not the omnibenevolent, omnipotent God of classical theism’
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F.R Tennant
Anthropic principle- the world is perfectly placed to contain life. The universe is so ‘finely tuned’ it could not have been a matter of chance
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Hoyle
‘concept of world coming into existence without a designer is ludicrous and impossible as a tornado blowing through a junkyard and forming a fully functioning jet’
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Richard Dawkins
Argued against coalition of design and evolution. He stated that evolution is a ‘blind’ random process with no direction or anyone controlling it
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John Stuart Mill
Questioned the goodness of nature considering the cruelty found within it (eg behaviour of the digger worm). Paley and Aquinas were concerned with whether the universe exhibits design, and not the nature of it
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Swinburne
‘whereas the design argument does not prove the existence of God, it does make it more probable than not that God exists’.
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Aquinas
the unmoved mover, the uncaused cause, contingency
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Gottfried Leibniz
‘why is there something rather than nothing’. Principle of SUFFICIENT REASON
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Explain the 3 parts to the principle of sufficient reason
1) if something exists there must be a reason 2) if a statement there must be a reason why its true 3) if something happens there must be a reason why it happens. ‘We can’t escape the ultimate and out-of-this world reason for things, namely God’
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Kenny
‘the five ways’- Aquinas argument fails on the understanding of motion because people and animals can move themselves
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David Hume criticisms of William Paley's argument
-We can’t assume that the world is like a watch to everyone -The only reason we would stop and pick up the watch is because it’s so different to the things around it- we know it’s designed because it wouldn’t have come about naturally
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His criticisms of the design argument in general
-Order doesn’t mean design -If everything was random and nothing suited its purpose then the world would not be here anymore- it looks designed because if it was chaotic then it would not survive
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Ludwig Wittgenstein
Some things eg tht self or God may exist but they are outside the range of things we can speak about because speech is related to the world and how we observe it. ‘Whereof we cannot speak, thereof we must remain silent’
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Brian Davies
The argument requires other argument in order to prove God’s existence. The cosmological argument fails to prove the existence of God complete with all the attributes we give him
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Al-Kindi and Al Ghazali
the Kalam argument. The present cannot exist in an infinite universe. The present does exist so it must be finite. A finite universe must have a beginning. Anything that has a beginning must have a cause (things dont cause themselves). Uni has cause
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JL Mackie
The analogy of the infinite number of train carriages; an infinite number of these still require an engine to inject energy
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Copleston
Infinity is an unproven idea
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Russell
The world may be infinite and doesn’t need a cause (Russell and oscillating universe theory)
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Anselm 1/3
-God as ‘that which nothing greater can be thought’. A real and existent being would be greater than one imaginary and illusory. Therefore, God must exist in reality to be the greatest thing
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2/3
-Things of contingent existence are inferior to those of necessary existence. Because God is unsurpassable in every way he must have a necessary existence
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3/3
-’God exists’ is an analytical a priori proposition because the concept of existence is part of the concept of God (makes reference to Psalm 53:1)
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Gaunilo
Replace God with an island and see where it falls down
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Descartes
We are born with an understanding of what God is, and understand him with all his perfect traditional attributes. Existence is part of the essence of God- like three angles of a triangle adding up to 180’
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Kant 1/2
- ‘existence is not a predicate’-it’s not a characteristic or attribute that helps us identify something in any way.
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2/2
-Anselm’s idea of nothing greater can be thought and Descartes sum of perfections are concepts and cannot be actualised. Adding ‘existence’ does not change the description
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Bertrand Russell
There is no such thing as the ‘bald king of France’ because there is no king of France.. The use of our words and adding predicates makes no difference eg adding ‘bald’ doesn’t demonstrate existence
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Norman Malcolm
existence in the contingent way can’t be a predicate but it can in the necessary way. But his second argument can still be successful without the predicate of existence
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Explain this
-If God doesn’t exist today then he never can or never will
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2/4
-If God does exist then he must exist necessarily rather than contingent and depending on something else
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3/4
-God’s existence is not impossible. It is not logically contradictory to have the concept of God who exists- it is an idea that we can entertain without logical absurdity
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4/4
-Therefore given that God’s existence is not impossible, it must be necessary, and that is the only option- so God exists necessarily
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Hume
Necessary existence is not a coherent concept as existence can only be contingent
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Iris Murdoch
The OA may not be an objective proof of the existence of God but has great value for the person who already believes in them. It holds that it’s rational to hold such beliefs
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Friedrich Schleiermacher
Essence of religion in religious experience. experience should be the heart of faith. ‘Self- authenticating’ and requires no other testing to see if its genuine
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William James
not reasonable for people to disregard religious experiences because they started from a position of scepticism. -Psychology can describe conversion experiences- but if a person is happier, kinder, more loving and positive then it may be valid
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what are the 4 main qualities to suggest they may be true 1/4
ineffability- (impossible to express in everyday language)
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2/4
noetic quality- (gives the person understanding of important truths)
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3/4
transience- (lasting no more than few hours- effect could last a lifetime)
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4/4
passivity-(feels as though experience being controlled outside of them- they are recipients and not instigators)
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Rudolf Otto
Tried to identify what made it religious and not just an experience.
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What 3 things did he think made an experience religious?
-God is incomprehensible (he cannot be met, understood or described eg Aslan in Narnia) -God is of ultimate importance -Quality of attractive and dangerous, cannot be controlled but people feel sense of privilege
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Hapold
Found that all mysticism from around the world had similar features:
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What are the similarities he found? 1/4
-Physical, material world only part of reality- comes from a ‘divine ground’
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2/4
-People can know ‘divine ground’ through intuition not reason
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3/4
-Humans have 2 parts- 1) the ego of which we are always conscious 2) spiritual ‘eternal self’ with ‘the spark of divinity within him’
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4/4
-Purpose of humanity is to discover the ‘eternal self’ and unite with the ‘Divine Ground’
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Otto
numinous are heart of all religious experience - they are ‘remote, yet stirring’ and give recognition that God is the ‘primary source of beauty and love’
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C.S Lewis
The presence of God is what caused him to become christian
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Swinburne
- A good God would seek to interact with his creations -Principle of credulity (experience is normally reliable -probability is that experiences can usually be trusted) -Principle of testimony (people usually tell the truth so we should believe)
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Freud
People people convert to religion to escape the horrors of the outside world- religion is a security blanket.
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Marx
Religion as the ‘opium of the masses’
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Wiles
Why would God only reveal himself to some people
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Ludwig Feuerbach
There is a NATURALISTIC EXPLANATION
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Explain these 1/3
-People worshipping God are actually worshipping their own human nature- they take the best aspects of human nature eg hope, creativity, compassion and ‘project’ them outside themselves as something to worship- there is no real objective God outside
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2/3
-People create God to fit their needs- a God who loves and values them
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3/3
-Want the world to be a fair place and so invent a God who punishes the bad and rewards the good
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Sigmund Freud
there are 3 parts to the human brain; the ego, the id and the super-ego
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What's the ego?
obvious to our conscious self aware of our opinions and decisions
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What's the id?
unconscious self which is not immediately obvious- memories and repressed emotions and desires we don’t want to admit to ourselves
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What's the super-ego?
inner ‘moral voice’- created as we grow up and find what is acceptable and what is not
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How does this relate to religious experience?
-Mistake moral commandments of super- ego as God -People unable to cope need a parent figure -Religious experience is an symptom of ‘infantile neurosis’ and they need to grow out of this to improve their mental health
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What does Donald Winnicott think God is like?
-‘Transitional objects’ eg teddy bear or blanket to which the child has a strong attachment- imagine it provides security and safety but at the same time knowing it’s just a toy
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How does he differ from Freud?
he does not argue people would be healthier without it, but that we need it. Religious experience only becomes madness when the people feel the need to impose their religion on others and claim it as ‘real’
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Caroline Franks Davis
We should take someone’s word on trivial matters, not matters of extreme importance
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Bertrand Russell
(radio debate 1948) “the fact that a belief has a good moral effect upon a man is no evidence whatsoever in favour of its truth”. Uses metaphor of a fictional hero having a profound effect on someone even though the story is a myth.
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Name some cases for religious experience
Teresa of Avila. St Francis of Assisi. C.S. Lewis. Toronto Blessings. Nicky Cruz
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Michael Persinger's example as neurophysiology as an explanation for religious experience
1980’s volunteers wore a helmet shaped device which transmitted magnet signals through the brain. People reported feelings similar to those in religious experience. People who have repeated haven't got as convincing results
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Mobbs and Watt
NDE’s and OBE’s can be biologically explained through the parietal and prefrontal cortices of the brain. The release of emotion altering hormones in the body at times of stress. Medication for patients suffering trauma can account for NDE sensation
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Irenaeus
God wants us to learn and grow in spiritual maternity, and so he gave us challenges and hardships to be able to freely choose to have a relationship with him
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Augustine
evil came into world, which God created perfect, some angels fell from heaven and corrupted humanity and caused Adam and Eve to sin, which was so significant it corrupted humanity and threw the world into sin
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John Hick
Irenaean thought- argued that challenges we face in this world are meant to help us reach a free relationship with God, and that this relationship is available and inevitable for everyone regardless of religious faith
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Epicurus
if God is all loving wouldn’t he want to prevent evil, and if he’s all powerful couldn’t he eliminate it and stop it from happening - THE INCONSISTENT TRIAD (can’t be a God of classical theism)
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David Hume
‘Is he willing to prevent evil, but not able? Then he is impotent. Is he able, but not willing? He he is malevolent. Is he both able and willing? Whence then is evil?
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J.L. Mackie
‘the problem of evil, in the sense in which I shall be using the phrase, is a problem only a problem for someone who believes that there is a God who is both omnipotent and wholly good’
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John Stuart Mill
evidence of human nature does not show a good and loving creator. There are many ways that humans and animals suffer. Human nature and suffering actually points to a sadistic creator who behaves in all the ways we condemn in human criminals
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Use a quote for this
‘all the things which men are hanged or imprisoned for doing to one another are natures everyday performances’
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Schleiermacher
Argued that it’s a logical contradiction to say that God perfectly created the world. Either the world wasn’t perfect or God made it go wrong
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John Hick and Richard Swinburne
decided that when God made us in his ‘image’ it had to included giving us free will (freedom to develop a loving relationship with God or whether to ignore him)
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Swinburne
agrees to the extent of saying death is a greater good as without it you'd never achieve anything as you'd have eternity to do things on earth
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Immanuel Kant
argued we can only act morally if we have freedom of choice
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Aquinas
supports Augustine and adds that natural evil is only from evil from our perspective (for example like a cat eating a mouse)
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Vardy
said that there was no way to justify dysteleological (excess) suffering which can be used against Swinburne
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DZ Phillips
Criticises the usefulness of evil- uses the example of the holocaust and says there can be no way to justify it
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Gil Edwards
He argues that it is only through suffering that qualities such as courage, trust and tolerance have an opportunity to come out to the fore. This supports Hick's argument that evil is essential for 'soul-making’
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David Griffin
Process Theodicy
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Explain this 1/9
-God not create universe
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2/9
-Universe was an uncreated process that God is a part of
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3/9
-God part of universe and so bound by natural law
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4/9
-He suffers when evil occurs because he’s the ‘fellow sufferer that understands’
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5/9
-God’s role in creation was to start off the evolutionary process of human beings
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6/9
-God does not have total control and so cannot stop evil and lacks the power to change the natural process
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7/9
-He bears some responsibility because he started off the evolutionary process
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8/9
-God is NOT OMNIPOTENT
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9/9
-God is DIPOLAR (physical pole part of material world and so he undergoes suffering)
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Plotinus
Gave Augustine the idea that evil is not a substance, but turning away from goodness
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Thomas Hobbes
Human life is ‘solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short’
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Jean-Jacques Rousseau
‘man is born free and everywhere he is in chains’ he thinks the opposite, that humans are born free and society messes us up. We are BORN INTRINSICALLY GOOD
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Paul
‘I do not understand what I do. For what I want to do I do not do, but what I hate I do’ Augustine interpreted this as a need to overcome sexual desires (lust begins to rule human relationships. This lack of control is called CONCUPISCENCE)
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Reinhold Niebuhr
While it’s unfashionable to talk of sin, failure to understand may lead to mistakes in society. Rationalistic and optimistic views have failed
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Freud
God psychological construction based on need for father figure. Religion may have been necessary to restrain our violent tendencies in the past but not in modern times
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Pelagius on human nature
Humans can’t have flawed nature. If we did, God would be demanding impossible when asking us to be holy
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Pelagius on sin
It is possible for humans to be good. Sin is only sin if its chosen. Must be possible for humans to live the perfect life without God’s intervention
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Pelagius on original sin
Created in the same state as Adam, we are responsible for our own sin
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Pelagius on death
Death is biological necessity, not punishment
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Pelagius on Grace
God’s grace assists us to see what’s right and wrong. Humans carry out the actions. Grace as the natural human faculties, given by God
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Pelagius on salvation
Humans use free will to choose God, their actions in choosing will bring the reward of salvation
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Pelagius on suffering
Augustine makes God sound arbitrary (random) in punishing innocent babies
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Pelagius on God
Would be unjust of God to condemn humans for something they can’t help. He would not give instructions that he could not keep
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Pelagius on Jesus
Good people existed in the Old Testament. They lived before Jesus brought salvation into the world
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St Paul
Was adamant that Jesus had risen from the dead and that this resurrection was a promise to all Christians.
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St Paul quote
‘so will it be with the resurrection of the dead. The body that is sown is perishable, it is raised imperishable… it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body’
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Aquinas
‘BEATIFIC VISION’, or coming face-to-face with God .Afterlife beyond space and time- the beatific vision is timeless and is a single ‘simultaneity’
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Aquinas on why people wouldn't get bored
There is no need to question whether people will get bored or have nothing to do because there will just be one eternal moment in the presence of God
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Bernard Williams
would eternity in heaven be desirable? Wouldnt it be boring after a while? If we are not hindered by limitations we would be able to do whatever we wanted…. Wouldn’t the excitement and anticipation disappear
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A.G Flew
asks; if joe is witnessing his own funeral, who is ‘joe’ observing and who is the ‘joe’ being buried? First-century Palestine debated among the Jewish population
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David Hume
a finite sin can never deserve an infinite punishment
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William Lane Craig
Describes resurrection as a ‘real historic event’
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Karl Rahner
purgatory- metaphor for the souls greater awareness of the consequence of sin. Soul becomes more aware of consequences of sin, especially the individuals own sin. The pain is more self inflicted pain of recognising your wrong doings.
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Immanuel Kant
argued that people should do the right thing because they know it’s the right thing to do, not because of any other motivation
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John Calvin 1/3
-God predestines people to eternal life with God or eternal punishment
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2/3
-Limited election for Christians
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3/3
-Unshakeable sovereignty of God- God has to already know who will be saved and who won't.
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Karl Bath 1/4
-Jesus brought salvation to the whole world
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2/4
-Through Jesus you can be elected
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3/4
-Doesn't believe in predestination
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4/4
-Believes in ‘unlimited election’ only to followers of Christ, Jesus made eternal life possible for all if they choose to become a christian
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John Hick 1/4
-God will save all people. Whatever their beliefs
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2/4
-Everyone will reach God in the end
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3/4
-Afterlife is a place where people can develop their faith and grow towards making a choice for God. he took an Irenaeun approach.
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4/4
-Different religions are just different expressions of the same universal human desire for God. there is no right and wrong religion, but simply different traditions due to cultural differences
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Cardinal Ratzinger
(later pope Benedict XVI) argues that this view makes Christ’s death on the cross pointless. If everyone is saved regardless of faith then Jesus just becomes of the many ways to heaven.
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Richard Dawkins
only sense that humans can survive death is through the memories of them in others minds, or through genes passed onto offspring
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Bertrand Russell
human wishful thinking. Would we really want ‘witch hunters’ to live forever? (even if they are repentant of their sins). World better understood without God or an afterlife
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Karl Rahner
suggests that if Jesus was conscious of God the Father’s awareness all the time, then his view of life can hardly be called human
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What's Karl Rahner's metaphor of an onion
His solution was to think of an onion (our self-awareness is layered). We have a deep understanding of ourselves which is beneath the surface of our consciousness-Rahner thought that Jesus’s self awareness was closer to the surface-hence his emotion
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Gerald O'Collins challenges Karl Rahner with 3 points, what are they? 1/3
Difficult to study the inner world of any being- especially that of Jesus- especially as he left no writings of his own
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2/3
Before claiming that Jesus knew he was the saviour, a person must show appreciation of the difficulty of the human mind (emotion, memory, how we experience reality)- knowing thyself is easier said than done
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3/3
Consciousness is not the same of knowledge of a seperate object. Knowledge of a seperate object takes place without reflection, but consciousness always involves a degree of reflection
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Hume
we have no present day direct experience of Jesus’s miracles and we should not trust the writers of the New Testament (maybe they are metaphorical- but this makes him less divine?)
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Edward Schillebeeckx
the miracles have a metaphorical meaning which is more than just a literal meaning. They have the purpose to allow Jesus to step into our lives
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Wright
the miracles of NT teach us of his caring for excluded members of society.
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Paul
if Jesus was not resurrected then all preaching would be in vain, sins would not be washed clean and at death all would perish- Christian faith without resurrection is impossible for Paul
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E.P Saunders
thinks it’s the resurrection that separated Jesus from other preachers at the time
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N.T Wright
said the belief that he was resurrected meant that Jesus’s disciples regrouped and rapidly changed their worship practices to Jesus
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Wolfhart Pannenberg
argued resurrection is a sign of God’s completion and perfection of creation at the end of time, revealing Jesus as God. ‘only because the end of the world is already present in Jesus, resurrection is God revealed in him’
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Gerald O'Collins
resurrection it is the realisation that ‘the weak, the despised, and the suffering… can serve as special mediators of revelation’
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Richard Dawkins
‘Jesus was a great moral teacher’
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John Hick
‘the myth of God incarnate’, he knows that Jesus is not unique his willingness is found in Moses, Muhammad, Guru Nanak, St Francis and many more. Jesus is a moral man who is in touch with God and acts as an example of how to live a moral life
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C.S Lewis
‘either this man was, and is, the son of God: or else a madman or something worse’
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Ludwig Wittgenstein
Jesus was the embodiment of an external moral and internal spiritual self
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S.G.F Brandon
study of Jesus and the Zealots (Zealots- a first century political group who wished to rid Palestine of roman occupation and used violence in rebellion) Brandon argued Jesus was a politically driven freedom fighter
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Robert Webb
at the time of Jesus there was ‘political banditry’ which sought to free poor peasants from their life of poverty
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Richard Horsley
describes social banditry as Robin-Hood style resistance
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Chris Marshall
politics is about power, and Jesus had lots of power
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Gustavo Gutierrez
3 types of liberation- political liberation (structural sin eg laws binding people), human liberation and liberation from sin to build a relationship with God
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Card 2

Front

Suzanne Uniacke

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doctrine of double effect… she uses the example of blowing somebody up and claiming they had no intention to kill

Card 3

Front

Hugo Grotius

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

G.E Moore

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Karl Bath

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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