Osmosis

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What is osmosis?
This is the movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from a region of high WATER concentration to a region of low WATER concentration. (it is a special type of diffusion)
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What practical can you do to show osmosis?
You can cut potato into cylinders and place them in two beakers, some in water and some in a sugar solution. Measure their lengths at the start/end of being in the solutions. If the water has moved out it will have grown and vice versa.
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What do root hair cells do?
The root hair cells grow on a plant's roots and take in water by osmosis. There are millions of them. They give a big surface area for absorbing water from the soil as there's usually a higher concentration of water in the soil than in the root.
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How are minerals taken in from the soil?
The root hairs absorb the minerals through active transport, but there is usually more minerals in the root than in the soil.
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What is active transport?
Active transport uses energy from respiration to help a plant pull minerals into the root hair cell AGAINST the concentration gradient.
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What is a xylem tube?
Xylem tubes transport water and minerals from the root to the rest of the plant.
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What is a phloem tube?
Phloem tubes transport sugars from the leaves where they're made to growing and storage tissues.
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What is transpiration?
This is caused by the evaporation/diffusion of water from inside the leaves which creates a water shortage. More water is taken up by the xylem vessels to replace it, so there is a constant transpiration stream through the plant.
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Why is transpiration a side effect of a leaf's adaptation for photosynthesis?
Leaves have stomata in them so that gases can be exchanged more easily, but because there's more water in the leaf than the air outside, it escapes the leaf through the stomata.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What practical can you do to show osmosis?

Back

You can cut potato into cylinders and place them in two beakers, some in water and some in a sugar solution. Measure their lengths at the start/end of being in the solutions. If the water has moved out it will have grown and vice versa.

Card 3

Front

What do root hair cells do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How are minerals taken in from the soil?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is active transport?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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