organisms in their environment

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Why are plants green?
The chlorophyll inside the plant.
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What is the balanced symbol equation for photosynthesis?
6H20+6CO2->C6H12O6+6O2
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How do you test for starch in a leaf sample?
Remove the chlorophyll in the leaf by boiling in water and then alcohol. Rinse. Then use iodine solution, as some drops to the leaf. If the solution turns blue-black, then starch is present.
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If starch is present, what does this mean?
The plant has photosynthesised. We know this as photosynthesis produces starch.
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Why would starch not be present in the white part of a leaf?
Because the area is white, meaning there is no chlorophyll present in this section of leaf. Chlorophyll is required to absorb light which is used for photosynthesis (which thus produces starch).
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What is a limiting factor?
A factor which limits the rate of a reaction.
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Give an example of a limiting factor.
Light intensity, carbon dioxide levels, temperature, nutrients, water, pH, space...
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What is the unit for light intensity?
Lux
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As the lux increases, the rate of photosynthesis increases. If i continue increasing the lux, will the rate continue increasing?
No!
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What would happen to the rate of photosynthesis?
It would plateau.
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Why would this happen?
Because the lux is no longer a limiting factor as it does not limit the rate anymore. This means something else is the limiting factor, e.g. temperature.
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I increase the temperature, the rate of photosynthesis increases. At 40 degrees celsius and above, the rate begins to decrease. Why does it increase?Why does it then decrease?
a) As the temperature increases, the enzymes and substrates move faster causing them to collide more often. b) The enzymes are denatured/ destroyed.
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Why might glucose be stored as starch?
Starch is insoluble in water so it wont affect the water balance in the plant. If it was stored as glucose, the osmosis activity would be affected. Starch is found in leaves, it will help them survive in winter when there is little sunlight.
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What is cellulose used for?
It's a carbohydrate which makes up cell walls.
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Why is glucose used to synthesise other molecules?
Proteins are used for enzymes and hormones, whereas fats are needed as an energy store in seeds or used in cell walls for strength.
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Give another use for glucose in plants.
In the process of respiration where it is used to release energy.
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What is the xylem vessel made of? How is this different to the phloem vessel?
Dead cells, the phloem vessel is made of living cells. This means the xylem vessel is thicker than the phloem.
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What is different about the flow of the two vessels?
The phloem is two way flow, whereas the xylem is on way.
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What does the xylem vessel transport, and what is it made of (material)?
water and minerals. The cellulose cell walls contain lignin (a waterproofing material)
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What does the phloem vessel transport, and what is it made of (material)?
Water and food. The cell wall is made of cellulose.
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Is cytoplasm present in the phloem or xylem vessels?
xylem vessel has none. Phloem vessel cells are lined with cytoplasm strands.
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Where do the vessels carry the solutions?
Xylem: to the leaf. Phloem: to storage organs and for growth points.
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What else is different about the two vessels?
The phloem cells have end walls with perforations whereas the xylem has none.
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What are nitrates used for?
making amino acids for proteins from glucose.
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What is potassium used for?
for enzymes to work in respiration and photosynthesis.
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What is magnesium used for?
to produce chlorophyll
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What is phosphorous used for?
it is a component of DNA and cell membranes.
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What is hydroponics?
a system where plants are grown (without soil) in the perfect conditions, with the perfect balance of mineral ions etc. There are no limiting factors.
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Give 3 advantages of hydroponics.
high profits, less staff, can be grown where land is poor, land does not need to be prepared.
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What is a disadvantage of hydroponics?
It is very expensive.
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Give two ways of measuring distribution of organisms.
Transects or quadrats.
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Why would you use a random number generator for coordinates instead of making them up?
So the results are not biased.
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What increases with the number of samples you take?
Accuracy and reproducibility.
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Why would there be more plants in high levels of oxygen?
Plants require o2 to respire.
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Is this the end?
YES! :D
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the balanced symbol equation for photosynthesis?

Back

6H20+6CO2->C6H12O6+6O2

Card 3

Front

How do you test for starch in a leaf sample?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

If starch is present, what does this mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why would starch not be present in the white part of a leaf?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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