Organisation - B2

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What is an enzyme?
Biological catalysts produced by living things
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What is a catalyst?
A substance which increases the speed of a reaction,without being changed or used up in the reaction
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How are enzymes shaped/what are they?
large proteins made up of chains of amino acids.these chains are folded into unique shapes
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Explain the lock and key model in terms of an enzyme
For an enzyme to work the substrate has to fit into its active site .If it doesnt,then the reaction wont be catalysed
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Why do enzymes need the right temperature?
temp changes the rate of an enzyme-catalysed reaction. If it gets too hot then some of the bonds that hold the enzyme together will break. All enzymes have an optimum temperature they work best at
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Why do enzymes need the right PH?
if its too high or low the pH interferes with the bonds holding the enzyme together. This changes the shape of the enzyme and causes it to become denatured
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What is the rate of something?
How much something changes over time
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How do we calculate the rate of reaction?
rate of reaction = change/ time
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What is the role of a digestive enzyme?
it breaks down bigger molecules like starch,proteins and fats as theyre too big to pass through the walls of the digestive system.The smaller molecules can pass easily through the walls of the digestive system so they can be absorbed into bloodstream
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What do carbohydrases convert?
Carbohydrases convert carbohydrates into simple sugars
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Amylase is a carbohydrase,where is amylase made? (3)
salivary glands,pancreas and small intestine
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What do proteases convert?
Proteases convert proteins into amino acids
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Where is protease made?
stomach (pepsin),pancreas and small intestine
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What do lipases convert?
Lipases convert lipids into glycerol and fatty acids
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Where is lipase made?
the pancreas and small intestine
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What does bile do?
Bile neutralises the stomach acid and emulsifies fats
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Where is bile produced, stored and released?
produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder and released into the small intestine
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Is bile an acid or an alkaline?
When the hydrochloric acid in the stomach makes the pH too acidic bile neutralises the acid as it is an alkaline
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Role of salivary glands in terms of enzymes
They produce amylase enzyme in the saliva
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Role of the stomach in terms of enzymes
pummels the food with its muscular walls, produces the protease enzyme pepsin.It produces hydrochloric acid to kill bacteria and to give the right pH for the protease enzyme to work
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Role of the pancreas in terms of enzymes
Produces protease, amylase and lipase enzymes and releases them into the small intestine
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Role of the small intestine in terms of enzymes
produces protease, amylase and lipase enzymes to complete digestion. Its also where food is absorbed into the blood
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Role of the rectum in terms of enzymes
Where the faeces are stored before they leave out of the anus
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Role of the Large intestine in terms of enzymes
Where excess water is absorbed from the food
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Role of the Gall bladder in terms of enzymes
Where bile is stored before its released into the small intestine
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Role of the liver in terms of enzymes
Where bile is produced.Bile neutralises stomach acids and emulsifies fats
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How do you test for sugars?
Use the benedicts test .Add around 10 drops and if it contains a reducing sugar, it will turn from blue to green, orange or brick red depending on how much sugar is present
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How do you test for starch?
Use iodine solution, add a few drops and if it contains starch it will change from browny-orange to blue black
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How do you test for proteins?
Use biuret test, add solution and if protein is present it will change from blue to pink or purple
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How do you test for lipids?
Prepare a sample of food and put it into a test tube. Use a pipette to add 3 drops of sudan III stain solution and gently shake.If the sample contains lipids then it will separate into two layers and the top layer will be bright red.
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What are the lungs like and what are they surrounded by?
big pink sponges and are protected by the ribcage.Theyre surrounded by the pleural membranes
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Where does gaseous exchange occur?
In the little air sacs called alveoli surrounded by a network of blood capillaries
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a catalyst?

Back

A substance which increases the speed of a reaction,without being changed or used up in the reaction

Card 3

Front

How are enzymes shaped/what are they?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explain the lock and key model in terms of an enzyme

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why do enzymes need the right temperature?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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