Organisation and the Digestive System

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What are cells?
The basic building blocks for all living things.
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What are tissues?
Groups of similar cells that work together to carry out a particular function. E.g. muscular, glandular and epithelial tissues.
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What are organs?
Groups of different tissues that work together to perform a certain function. E.g. stomach, heart, lungs.
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What are organ systems?
Groups of different organs working together to perform a particular function. E.g. digestive system, nervous system.
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Put these in order of smallest to biggest: tissue, organ system, organism, cell.
Cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism.
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What are enzymes?
Biological catalysts that speed up useful chemical reactions in living organisms without being used up or changed during the reaction.
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What are enzymes made of?
They are proteins made of chains of amino acids folded into unique shapes.
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What is an enzyme's active site?
The part of the enzyme that the substrate fits into. The active site is unique shape that is specific to the the enzyme's substrate.
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What happens if an enzyme is not kept at its optimum temperature or pH?
Some of the bonds holding the enzyme together are either broken or interfered with which causes the shape of the enzyme's active site to change. This means the substrate can no longer fit and rate of reaction decreases - the enzyme has denatured.
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Why do molecules like starch and protein need to be broken down?
Molecules like protein and starch are too big to pass through the walls of the digestive system so they need to be broken down into smaller, soluble molecules that can pass through the wall of the digestive system and absorbed into the bloodstream.
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What does amylase do?
Amylase is a carbohydrase which breaks down starch into sugar (maltose).
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Where in the body is amylase made?
The salivary glands, the pancreas and the small intestine,
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What does protease do?
Breaks down proteins into amino acids.
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Where in the body is protease made?
The stomach, the pancreas and the small intestine.
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What does lipase do?
Break down lipids (fats) into fatty acids and glycerol.
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Where in the body is lipase made?
The pancreas and the small intestine.
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What can products of digestion be used to do?
Build new carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Also some of the glucose absorbed is used in respiration.
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What is bile and where is made?
An alkaline liquid made in liver and stored in the gall bladder.
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What does bile do?
It's released into the small intestine to neutralise the hydrochloric acid from the stomach as the low pH isn't suitable for enzymes in the small intestine. It emulsifies fat into tiny droplets which increases the surface area for lipase to work on.
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How do you prepare a food sample?
Get a piece of food and break it up using a pestle and mortar. Then transfer the food to a beaker, add some distilled water and stir the mixture with a glass rod to dissolve some of the food. Finally, filter the solution to get rid of the solid bits.
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What results do you get from the Benedict's test?
If a reducing sugar is present, the colour of the solution will change from blue to green, yellow or brick-red - with green showing a lower concentration of sugar and brick-red showing a higher concentration of sugar.
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What results do you get from the iodine test for starch?
If starch is present, the solution will change from browny-orange to blue-black or just black.
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What results do you get from the Biuret test?
If protein is present, the solution will change from blue to pink to purple.
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What results do you get from the Sudan III test?
If lipids are present, the mixture will separate out into 2 layers and the top layer will be bright red.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are tissues?

Back

Groups of similar cells that work together to carry out a particular function. E.g. muscular, glandular and epithelial tissues.

Card 3

Front

What are organs?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are organ systems?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Put these in order of smallest to biggest: tissue, organ system, organism, cell.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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