organisation

Health and Disease
A good health is the state of physical and mental well being. A disease is caused by part of the body not working properly. diseases can be communicable or non-communicable
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Health and Disease
diseases can interact with each other: -viruses infecting cells can be the trigger for cancers, such as cervical cancer.
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Health and Disease-how they spread.
diseases of the immune system mean that an individual is more likely to catch infectious diseases, e.g. people with HIV are more likely to get tuberculosis.
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Health and Disease-how they spread
immune reactions triggered by a pathogen can cause allergies, such as skin rashes. If a person is physically ill this can lead to depression and mental illness.
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Health and Disease
non-communicable diseases such as diabetes can change a persons life and cost countries a lot of money. about 10% of the health budget in the uk is spent on diabetes.
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Risk Factors
Non-Communicable diseases can be caused by risk factors. These can be: aspects of a lifestyle such as lack of exercise. substances in the persons body or environment such as smoking.
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Risk factors
sometimes there is a clear link between the disease and risk factor such as obesity and type 2 diabetes but this does not mean the risk factor causes the disease. some scientists need to look for a causal mechanism to prove theres a risk factor linke
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diseases of the Heart
in coronary heart disease, layers of fatty material build up inside the coronary arteries and narrow them
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diseases of the Heart-coronary heart disease
some treatments include: stents- to keep the coronary artery open. saints- to reduce blood cholesterol levels and slow down the rate at which fatty materials build up.
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diseases of the Heart
in some people heart valves may become faulty, developing a leak or preventing the valve from opening fully. faulty valves can be replaced using biological or mechanical valves.
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diseases of the Heart-heart failure
A donor heart can be transplanted. Artificial hearts can be used to keep patients alive while waiting for a heart transplant.
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Cancer
non-communicable. Some risk factors include smoking, obesity, UV exposure. there can also be genetic risks which may run in the family. Cancer is caused by uncontrollable cell division . this can form tutors.
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Tumors
Benign tumors do not spread around the body. Malignant tutors spread in the blood to different parts of the body where they form other tumors.
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Plant tissues-epidermis
covers the outer surfaces of the plant for protection.
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Plant tissues -palisade mesophyll
the main side of photosynthesis in the leaf.
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Plant tissues-spongy mesophyll
Air spaces between the cell allow gases to diffuse through the lea.
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Plant tissues-xylem vessels
Transports water and minerals through the plant, from roots to leaves. Also supports the plant
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Plant tissues-phloem vessels
transports dissolved food materials through the plant
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Plant tissues-meristem tissue
found mainly at the tips of the roots and shoots, where it can produce new cells for growth.
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Plant tissues
plant tissues are gathered together to form organs. The leaf is a plant organ. The structure of tissues in the leaf are related to their function.
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Water transportation
water enters the plant from the soil, through the root hair cells by osmosis. Root hair cells, xylem and phloems cells are specialised to transport water, minerals and sugars around the plant.
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Water transportation
this water contains dissolved minerals. the water is transported up the xylem vessels from the roots to the stem and leaves. At the leaves most of the water will evaporate ad diffuse out of the stomata.
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Water transportation
The loss of water from the leaves is called transpiration.
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Transpiration-factors effecting it (increase)
increase in temp will increase the rate as more energy is transferred to the water to evaporate. Faster air flow will increase rate as it will blow away any water vapour. increased light intensity will increase rate as it causes the stomata to open.
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transpiration-factors effecting it (decrease)
an increase in humidity will decrease the rate as at the air contains more water vapour, so the concentration gradient for diffusion is lower.
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Water transportation
Guard cells open and close the stomata. At night the stomata are closed this is because CO2 is not needed for photosynthesis so closing the stomata will reduce water loss.
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Translocation
Phloem tissue transports dissolved sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant. this movement of food through phloem tissue is called translocation.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

diseases can interact with each other: -viruses infecting cells can be the trigger for cancers, such as cervical cancer.

Back

Health and Disease

Card 3

Front

diseases of the immune system mean that an individual is more likely to catch infectious diseases, e.g. people with HIV are more likely to get tuberculosis.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

immune reactions triggered by a pathogen can cause allergies, such as skin rashes. If a person is physically ill this can lead to depression and mental illness.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

non-communicable diseases such as diabetes can change a persons life and cost countries a lot of money. about 10% of the health budget in the uk is spent on diabetes.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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