organisation

Specialised cells
-cells are the basic building blocks of all living organisms -As an organism develops, cells differentiate to form different types of cells. they become specialised.
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specialised cells- many plant cells can differentiate throughout life
As the plant cell differentiates: -It might change shape. -different sub-celluar structures develop to let it carry out a specific function.
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specialsed cells
specialised animal cells include: sperm, nerve and muscle cells.
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xylem
Xylem cells are arranged end tend but the end walls break down to form hollow tubes. the cell wall of the cell is strengthened by a substance called lignin
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phloem
The end walls of the cells allow sugars through but supported the tubes. phloem cells are arranged end to end into tubes
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root hair cell
lots of mitochondria for active transport of minerals. long projection to increase the surface area to absorb water and minerals.
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sperm cell
Lots of mitochondria-major site of respiration, prepares them for the journey. Acrosome-contains enzymes to allow sperm to penetrate outer layer of egg. Tail-to swim. Nucleus- contains only one set of genetic material.
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muscle tissue
can contract to bring about movement
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glandular tissues
can produce substances such as enzymes and hormones.
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epithelial tissue
covers all parts of the body
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Tissues, Organs and Systems
a tissue is a group of cells with a similar structure and function, which all work together together to do a job. EG. muscle tissue contracts to produce movement.
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Tissues, Organs and Systems
organs are groups of different tissues, which all work together to perform a specific job. Each organ may contain several tissues.
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Tissues, Organs and Systems
for example, the stomach is an organ that contains: Muscle tissue to contract and churn contents. Glandular tissue to produce digestive juices. Epithelial tissue to over the outside and inside the tissue.
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Tissues, Organs and Systems
Organs are organised into organ systems which are a group of organs working together to do a particular job for example the digestive system.
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Enzymes
enzymes are biological catalysts- they speed up chemical reaction in living organisms.
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Enzymes
enzymes have a number of properties: they are all large proteins. There is a space within the protein called the active site. Each enzyme catalyses a specific reaction. They all have a Optimum temp and ph.
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Enzymes
lock and key theory- theory on how enzymes work. the chemical that reacts is called the substrate (key) and it fits into the enzymes active site (lock)
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Enzymes
High temp and extreme PH make the enzyme change shape this is called denaturing.
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Enzymes
The enzyme cannot work once it has been denatured because the substrate cannot fit into the active site.
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Enzymes in digestion
Digestive enzymes are produced by specialised cells in glands and the lining of the gut.
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Enzymes in digestion
1. the enzymes pass out of the cells into the digestive system. 2. They come into contact with food molecules. 3. they catalyse the breakdown of large insoluble molecules into smaller soluble molecules.
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Enzymes in digestion
The digestive enzymes, protease, lipase and carbohydrate, digest proteins, lipids and carbohydrates to produce smaller molecules that can be easily absorbed into the bloodstream.
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Amylase
produced in salivary glands and the pancreas. breaks down starch into sugar (maltose). To test for starch iodine solution, will turn black if present.
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Protease
is produced in the stomach, pancreas and small intestine. breaks down protein into amino acids. to Test for protein add biuret reagent if protein is present it will turn purple.
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Lipase
produced in the pancreas and small intestine. breaks down lipids into fatty acids and glycerol. To test for sugars add Benedict's reagent and heat in a water bath for 2 mins. if sugar is present it will turn red.
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Bile and digestion
Bile is a liquid made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder. It is alkaline to neutralise hydrochloric acid in stomach. It also emulsifies fat fat to form small droplets increasing the surface area for enzymes to react on.
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Bile and digestion.
The alkaline conditions and large surface area increase the rate at which fat is broken down by lipase.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

As the plant cell differentiates: -It might change shape. -different sub-celluar structures develop to let it carry out a specific function.

Back

specialised cells- many plant cells can differentiate throughout life

Card 3

Front

specialised animal cells include: sperm, nerve and muscle cells.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Xylem cells are arranged end tend but the end walls break down to form hollow tubes. the cell wall of the cell is strengthened by a substance called lignin

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The end walls of the cells allow sugars through but supported the tubes. phloem cells are arranged end to end into tubes

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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