Organic Chemistry Reactions

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  • Created by: geeraf97
  • Created on: 27-11-14 14:52
What is the functional group of a carboxylic acid?
C=O and a C-OH bond
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Explain addition polymerisation
The double bond in an alkene is broken and the carbon searches for another bond.To gain the new bond it breaks another alkenes double bond and so begins a chain reaction.
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Name the 3 stages of a free radical reaction
Initiation, propogation and termination
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What is a secondary alcohol?
The OH group is attached to a carbon with 2 carbons bonded to it.
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What type of intermolecular forces exist in alcohols?
Hydrogen bonding and van der Waals
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Name 2 ways ethanol can be produed.
Fermentation and the cracking of crude oil
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Primary alcohols can be oxidised to produce which organic molecules?
Aldehydes and Carboxylic acids
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Dehydration is another name for what reaction?
Elimination
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How do you dehydrate alcohols?
With an excess of hot concentrated sulfuric acid or by passing their vapours over heated aliminium oxide.
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What are the 4 electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes?
Reaction with hydrogen halides, with halogens, with sulfuric acid and with water
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What are the conditions of an alkene's reaction with water?
With steam and pressure and an acid catalyst
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What are the physical properties of alkenes?
Very similar melting and boiling points to alkanes, not soluble in water. The melting and boiling points increase with the number of carbons.
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What are the reactions of haloalkanes?
Nucleophilic substitution and elimination
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What are the conditions of elimination?
Hot OH- in ethanol
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Which haloalkanes tend to elimination and which to substitution?
Primary tend to react by substitution, secondary react by both and tertiary react by elimination.
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Explain the process of fractional distillation.
1. Crude oil heated in the furnace 2. Vapour moves up the tower to the cooler top 3. When the substance cools to just below its boiling point it will condense and be removed from the tower
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What are the useful results of cracking?
Shorter more useful chain molecules are produced and some of the products are alkenes that are more reactive than alkanes.
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What are the conditions of thermal cracking?
Temp: 700-1200K High Pressure: 7000KPa
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What are the conditions of catalytic cracking?
Temp: 720K, Lower pressure, Zeolite catalyst consisting of silicon dioxide and aliminium oxide
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What is used to absorb sulfur dioxide?
Calcium Oxide
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What are the physical properties of haloalkanes?
The polar bonds do not have enough polarity to be soluble in water. Boiling point increases as the chain length increase. Increased branching leads to a lower boiling point.
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What is an electrophile?
An electron pair acceptor
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What is a nucleophile?
They are a reagents that attack and form bonds with positively charged carbon atoms.
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What are the conditions of Elimination?
OH- is a base removing the H+ ion from the haloalkane
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What is the functional group of Ketones?
A C=O bond in the middle of a chain
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What is the functional group of an aldehyde?
A C=O bond on the end of the chain
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What is a homologus series?
A family of organic compounds with the same functional group but different chain length
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Explain addition polymerisation

Back

The double bond in an alkene is broken and the carbon searches for another bond.To gain the new bond it breaks another alkenes double bond and so begins a chain reaction.

Card 3

Front

Name the 3 stages of a free radical reaction

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a secondary alcohol?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What type of intermolecular forces exist in alcohols?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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