Organic chemistry key definitions

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Nomenclature
System for naming compounds
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Unsaturated hydrocarbon
Hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond
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Homologous series
An organic series with the same functional group but with each member differing by CH2
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Functional group
Part of an organic molecule responsible for its chemical properties
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Alkane
The homologous series without any double bonds with the general formula CnH2n+2
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Alkene
The homologous series with a double bond with the general formula CnH2n
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Displayed formula
Shows relative positions of all atoms in a molecule with bonds between them
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Structural formula
Shows minimal detail of the arrangement of atoms in a molecule.
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Skeletal formula
Formula with hydrogen's removed and only the bonds between carbon atoms shown, not the atoms themselves.
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Structural isomers
Isomers with the same molecular formula but a different structural formula
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Positional isomerism
A type of structural isomerism. When a functional group is on a different numbered carbon.
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Chain isomerism
A type of structural isomerism. When branches occur in a chain.
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Stereoisomers
Isomers with the same structural formula but a different arrangement in space.
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E/Z isomerism
A type of stereoisomerism. Double bond stops rotation and different groups on the carbons of this double bond.
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Homolytic Fission
When a covalent bond breaks giving an electron to each atom creating 2 radicals.
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Hetrolytic fission
When a covalent bond breaks giving both electrons to one atom creating one positive and one negative ion.
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Radical
A species with an unpaired electron.
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Nucleophile
(nucleus loving) an electron pair donator
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Electrophile
(electron loving) an electron pair acceptor
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Addition reaction
When a species ADDS to another species. Needs a double bond.
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Substitution reaction
When a species REPLACES another species in a reaction.
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Elimination reaction
When a molecule is removed from another molecule forming a double bond.
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Nucleophile substitution
When a nucleophile replaces a halogen.
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Free radical substitution
When a halogen replaces a hydrogen in 3 steps: initiation, propagation, termination.
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Electrophilic addition
When a species adds across a double bond.
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Fractional Distillation
When crude oil is split into its components by their boiling points.
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Cracking
When a long chain alkane is split into a shorter alkane and an alkene.
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Combustion
When a compund is burnt completely in excess oxygen forming carbon dioxide and water.
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Incomplete conbustion
When a compound is burnt in oxygen to form carbon or carbon monoxide and water.
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Pi-bond
Formed by the sideways overlap of adjacent p-orbitals (use diagram)
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Polymer
Long chain of monomers
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Monomer
Small monomer, usually an alkene, used to build up a ploymer.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond

Back

Unsaturated hydrocarbon

Card 3

Front

An organic series with the same functional group but with each member differing by CH2

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Part of an organic molecule responsible for its chemical properties

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The homologous series without any double bonds with the general formula CnH2n+2

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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