Organic Chemistry Definitions OCR Unit 2

HideShow resource information
Hydrocarbon
A compound of hydrogen and carbon only
1 of 27
Empirical formula
The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound
2 of 27
Molecular formula
The actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule
3 of 27
General formula
The simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series
4 of 27
Homologous series
Series of organic compounds having the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH₂
5 of 27
Structural isomers
Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formula
6 of 27
Stereoisomers
Compounds with the same structural formula but with a different spatial arrangement
7 of 27
Homolytic fission
The breaking of a covalent bond with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom, forming two radicals
8 of 27
Heterolytic fission
The breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded electrons going to one of the atoms, forming a cation and an anion
9 of 27
Radical
A species with an unpaired electron
10 of 27
Electrophile
An electron pair acceptor
11 of 27
Nucleophile
An electron pair donor
12 of 27
Atom economy calculation
(Molecular mass of desired products/ Molecular mass of all products) x 100
13 of 27
Percentage yield calculation
(Actual mass of desired product/ Max possible mass of desired product) x 100
14 of 27
Sigma bond (σ bond)
Bond formed directly between two atoms by the head on overlap of orbitals
15 of 27
Pi bond (π bond)
Bond formed above and below the plane of an atom by the sideways overlap of p-orbitals
16 of 27
Activation energy
Minimum energy with which particles must collide in order to react
17 of 27
Standard conditions
100kPa (1 atm), 298K (25*C) and a concentration of 1 mol dm^-3
18 of 27
Enthalpy, H
The heat content (energy) that is stored in a chemical bonds
19 of 27
Exothermic ΔH = - ve
Reaction in which the enthalpy of the products is smaller than the enthalpy of the reactants
20 of 27
Endothermic ΔH = + ve
Reaction in which the enthalpy of the products is greater than the enthalpy of the reactants
21 of 27
(Standard) enthalpy change of combustion ΔHcΘ
Energy transferred when one mole of an element or compound reacts completely with oxygen (under standard conditions)
22 of 27
(Standard) enthalpy change of formation ΔHfΘ
Energy transferred when one mole of a compound is formed from its elements (under standard conditions)
23 of 27
Hess' law
The enthalpy change of any reaction is independent of the route taken
24 of 27
Catalyst
Increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the overall reaction (lowers the activation energy needed)
25 of 27
Dynamic equilibrium
The equilibrium that exists in a closed system when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction
26 of 27
Le Chatelier's principle
When a system in dynamic equilibrium is subjected to a change, the position of the equilibrium will shift to minimise the change
27 of 27

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound

Back

Empirical formula

Card 3

Front

The actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Series of organic compounds having the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH₂

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all Functional Groups resources »