Organic Chemistry

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  • Created by: becky.65
  • Created on: 16-05-15 13:14
What is a functional group?
An atom or group of atoms that give organic compounds their characteristic reactions
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What is a homologous series?
A group of related organic compounds that have he same functional group e.g the molecules of the homologous series of alcohols all contain the -OH group
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What are the first three alcohols in the homologous series?
Methanol, Ethanol, Propanol
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What is the word equation for the combustion of ethanol?
ethanol + oxygen ---> carbon dioxide + water
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What is the symbol equation for the combustion of ethanol?
C2H5OH + 3O2 ----> 2CO2 + 3H2O
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What happens when sodium metal is added to alcohol?
The sodium effervesces and produces hydrogen gas
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What is the word equation for the reaction with sodium?
sodium + ethanol --> sodium ethoxide + hydrogen
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What is the symbol equation for the reaction with sodium?
2Na + 2C2H5OH -->2C2H5ONa + H2
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How can alcohol be oxidised to ethanoic acid?
Either by adding chemical oxidising agents, such as potassium dichromate(vi) and boiling it or by the action of microbes in the air
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What is the word equation for the oxidation by adding chemical oxidising agents?
ethanol + oxygen atoms from oxidising agent --> ethanoic acid + water
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What is the symbol equation for the oxidation by adding chemical oxidising agents?
C2H5OH + 2[O] --> CH3COOH + H2O
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What functional group do all Carboxylic acids contain?
-COOH
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What are the first three members of the Carboxylic acid homologous series?
Methanoic acid, Ethanoic acid and Popanoic acid
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Does ethanoic acid and hydrochloric acid react in the same when reacted with sodium carbonate?
Yes - they both fizz and form a salt, water and carbon dioxide, however,hydrochloric acid fizzes for longer
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What is the pH for ethanoic acid and hydrochloric acid?
ethanoic acid: 2.9pH hydrochloric acid: 1pH
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Why must acids dissolve in water before they show their acidic properties?
In water, all acids ionise and their molecules spit up to form H ions and negative ions. It is the H ions that all acidic solutions have in common
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Give the equation for the HCl molecules ionising in water
HCl(aq) ----------> H (aq) + Cl (aq)
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How do strong acids ionise in water?
They ionise completely
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How to weak acids ionise in water?
Most of the molecules stay as they are and only some will ionise in their solutions. A position of equilibrium is reached in which both molecules and ions are present
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Give the equation for ethanoic acid ionising in water
CH3COOH(aq) Ch3COO (aq) + H (aq)
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How do we make esters?
By reacting carboxylic acids with alcohols
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What is the functional group for esters?
-COO-
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What is the word equation for reacting ethanoic acid with ethanol?
ethanoic acid + ethanol ethyl ethanoate + water
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What is the symbol equation for reacting ethanoic acid with ethanol?
CH3COOH + C2H5OH CH3COOC2H5 + H2O
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What is the general equation for esters?
carboxylic acid + alcohol ester + water
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What are the properties of esters?
They have distinctive sweet and fruity smells and are volatile. This make them ideal to use in perfumes and food flavourings
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a homologous series?

Back

A group of related organic compounds that have he same functional group e.g the molecules of the homologous series of alcohols all contain the -OH group

Card 3

Front

What are the first three alcohols in the homologous series?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the word equation for the combustion of ethanol?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the symbol equation for the combustion of ethanol?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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