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Boiling point of Halogenoalkanes vs. Alkanes
Halogenoalkanes = greater boiling point, because greater Mr so stronger Van Der Waals. When molecules with the SAME Mr are compared, Halogenoalkanes have LOWER boiling points. (When Mr = the alkane's carbon chain is LONGER VDW acting over greater area
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What are steric effects?
Size/Bulkiness of groups - reason for tertiary alkanes NOT to have Sn2 reactions.
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What are the two reactants in a Nucleophilic Substitution reaction?
Halogenoalkane and NaOH
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What functional group are ketones and aldehydes apart of?
Carbonyl
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What functional group is alcohol a part of?
Hydroxyl
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What is the catalyst for oxidising ALCOHOLS
Acidified Potassium Dichromate (VI)
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What are the products the oxidation of alcohols (plentiful supply of oxygen)?
Carbon dioxide + Water
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A primary alcohol heated under reflux under the presence of dilute sulfuric acid and potassium dichromate (VI), what is the product?
Carboxylic Acid
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What is heating under reflux?
Heating in a flask with a condenser placed vertically in it
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What is the colour change that takes place due to the dichromate (VI) ion in the oxidation of alcohols?
Orange to Green
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Oxidation of Ketones?
Nothing
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What would be the main product of partial oxidation of an alcohol?
Aldehyde
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Oxidation of a tertiary alcohol?
Nothing reaction - resistant to oxidation. Steric effects.
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Oxidation of secondary alcohol?
Ketone.
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Complete oxidation of primary alcohol?
Carboxylic acid.
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What is the rate equation for an SN2 reaction?
rate = k[halogenoalkane][OH]
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Rate equation of Sn1 reaction?
rate = k[halogenoalkane]
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Compare the boiling point of aldehydes and alcohols and alkanes?
Alcohols> Aldehydes > Alkanes
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Why do Carboxylic acids have greater boiling points than Alcohols?
More hydrogen bonding takes place. Two O atoms per molecule.
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Butanal is _____
an Aldehyde
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Butanone is ____
a Ketone
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Which nucleophilic substitution has a carbocation?
Sn1
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Are Halogenoalkanes soluble?
Insoluble in water (most of the time) and soluble in organic solvents - more soluble than alkanes (slight polarity)
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Are carbonyls soluble?
Dependent on the length of carbon chain. Lower members = soluble due to the greater effect of the O's electronegativity. On longer chains its effect is negligible (therefore not polar) and so carbonyls aren't soluble.
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What is the state called when the -CH and -Halogen group are both partially attached to the C atom?
Transition state
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What is amphoterism?
Behaves as either an acid or a base
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are steric effects?

Back

Size/Bulkiness of groups - reason for tertiary alkanes NOT to have Sn2 reactions.

Card 3

Front

What are the two reactants in a Nucleophilic Substitution reaction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What functional group are ketones and aldehydes apart of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What functional group is alcohol a part of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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