Organic compounds containing nitrogen

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What is hydrolysis?
The decomposition by the addition of water, usually irreversibly. The added water may be in the form of water itself, aqueous acid or alkali.
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How is a nitrile formed from a carboxylic acid?
Addition of ammonia to a carboxylic acid to produce an ammonium salt which can then be heated to form an amide, this amide is then dehydrated with an agent such as Phosphorus (v) oxide to produce the nitrile.
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How is a nitrile formed from a halogenoalkane?
The halogenoalkane is reacted with KCN using ethanol as a solvent.
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What conditions are needed for the hydrolysis of nitriles and amides?
Warmed with dilute sulfuric acid to give a carboxylic acid.
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What conditions is needed for the reduction of a nitrile?
A nitrile is reduced by lithium tetrahydriodoaluminate (III) dissolved in ethoxyethane, an amine is the product.
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How to make an aliphatic amine?
This is a nucleophilic substitution, they are made by reacting a halogenoalkane with an excess of ammonia dissolved in ethanol. A hydrogen halide is also produced which reacts with excess ammonia giving an ammonium salt.
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How to make an aromatic amine?
A nitro compound is heated with a reducing agent, such as tin and concentrated hydrochloric acid.
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What makes amines basic?
The nitrogen atom in amine has a lone pair of electrons which can act as a base. Only small amines are soluble in water, but all amines act as bases by being electron pair donars.
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How do you make nitrous acid?
Sodium nitrate (III) + dilute HCl
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What is an alpha amino acid?
This is when the amine group (NH2) is bonded to a carbon atom next to the acid group (COOH).
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What is a zwitterion?
This is when a proton is transferred from the acid group to the base group. You end up with a positive (NH3+) and a negative (COO-).
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Why are alpha amino acids amphoteric?
This is because they can gain or lose an proton respectively.
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What is the peptide link?
H-N-C=O [dipeptides are formed when to chemicals are joined with the peptide link]
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Primary structure of polypeptides?
A sequence of amino acids in a chain.
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Secondary structure of polypeptides?
When amino acid chains coil and hydrogen bond in a double pleated helix.
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Tertiary structure of polypeptides?
3D protein, present in living systems such as hair, feathers and cartilage.
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Card 2

Front

How is a nitrile formed from a carboxylic acid?

Back

Addition of ammonia to a carboxylic acid to produce an ammonium salt which can then be heated to form an amide, this amide is then dehydrated with an agent such as Phosphorus (v) oxide to produce the nitrile.

Card 3

Front

How is a nitrile formed from a halogenoalkane?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What conditions are needed for the hydrolysis of nitriles and amides?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What conditions is needed for the reduction of a nitrile?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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