Organic Chemistry

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What does the curly arrow in a mechanism represent?
Movement of electrons
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What is a chain isomer?
Same functional group, different arrangement of carbon atoms
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What is a position isomer?
Functional group attached to different carbons in the chain
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What is a functional group isomer?
Atoms arranged into different functional groups
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What is a Z isomer?
Atoms/groups in the same plane
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What is an E isomer?
Atoms/groups in different planes
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What is a stereoisomer?
Same structural formula, atoms arranged in different spaces
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Why are alkanes described as saturated?
Only have carbon and hydrogen, no double bonds
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What is cracking?
Breaking long chain alkanes into smaller alkanes and alkenes
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What type of catalysts are used in cracking?
Zeolites (hydrated aluminosilicate)
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Describe one method for removing sulphur dioxide from flue gas?
Powdered calcium carbonate and wate rto neutralise
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How are chlorine free radicals formed in the upper atmosphere?
UV light causes the bonds to break
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What is a neucleophile?
An electron pair donor
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What happens in a neucleophilic substitution reaction?
Haloalkane and neucleophile, attacks central carbon, new boned formed
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What conditions are needed in the bromoethane and ammonia reaction?
Warmed in a sealed tube
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What is an electrophile?
Electron pair acceptors
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What does bromine water test for?
Differentiate between alkanes and alkenes
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Which carbocation is the most stable?
Tertiary
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Briefly describe addition polymerisation.
The double bonds in alkenes open up and join together. Form long chains called polymers
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Why are poly(alkenes) unreactive?
They have lost their C=C double bond, carbon chain is non-polar
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What are the inermolecular forces between polymer chains and poly(chloroethene)?
Cl-C bonds are polar, the Cl and C atoms of different chains have permanent dipole forces
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Two uses of rigid poly(chloroethene).
Window frames, drain pipes
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Two uses of flexible poly(chloroethene).
Clothing, electric cable insulation
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What is the equation for fermentation?
C6H12O6------>2C2H5OH + 2CO2
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What two substances can be used to oxidise alcohols?
Potassium manganate and potassium dichromate
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What does a primary alcohol oxidise to?
An aldehyde then a carboxylic acid
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What does a secondary alcohol oxidise to?
A keytone
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What does a tertiary alcohol oxidise to?
Nothing, it doesn't oxidise
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How could you distinguish between an aldehyde and a keytone?
Fehlings solution or Tollens' reagent
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What colour forms when Fehilings solution is mixed with an aldehyde?
Silver mirror
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How do you make Tollens' reagent?
2cm^2 of 0.1mol of silver nitrate, a few drops of sodium hydroxide, dilute ammonia.
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Where is the finger print region of an infrared spectrum?
From 1500 (wavelength) and below
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a chain isomer?

Back

Same functional group, different arrangement of carbon atoms

Card 3

Front

What is a position isomer?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a functional group isomer?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a Z isomer?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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