Organic chemistry

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What is a homologous series
A group of compounds that have the same general formula and therefore similar properties
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What is an alkane
Chains of carbon atoms with single bonds
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What is the general formula for an alkane
CnH2n+2
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What is an alkene
Chains of carbon atoms with a double bond
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What is the formula for an alkene
CnH2n
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What is the formula for an alcohol
CnH2n+1OH
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What is the functional group in an alcohol
OH
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What is a functional group
The part of the compound that gives the homolgous series the similar properties
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How can you make ethanol
Fermentation or cracking crude oil to make ethene then reacting it with steam
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What are advantages of fermentation if ethanol
It is renewable so will never run out
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What are the disadvantages
It needs to be purified and that's expensive and takes time
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What are advantages of getting ethanol from crude oil
You can use it straight away and its cheaper because there are no waste products
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What are the disadvantages
It comes from crude oil which is non renewable
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What are the effects on your body of too much alcohol
Liver cirrhosis, lowered inhibitions, loss of balance, unconsciousness, vomiting, alcohol poisoning
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What are the effects on society of too much alcohol
Family breakdowns, expense on NHS and police, violence, spread of STI's/STD's, increased crime and road accidents, alcoholism
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What makes vinegar
Oxidised ethanoic acid
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What is the formula for a carboxylic acid
CnH2n+1COOH
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What two things combine to make an ester
An alcohol and a carboxylic acid
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What can you use esters for
Perfumes and food flavourings
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What is a polyester
Polymers that contain the ester functional group
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What can you use polyesters for
Clothing, plastic bags, bottles etc
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What is a soap made from
An alkali and an ester
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What examples of esters can you boil with an alkali to make a soap
Fats and oils
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What type of alkali could you use
NaOH, KOH etc
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What part of a soap if hydrophobic
The tail
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What part of the soap is hydrophilic
The head
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How does the head an the tail of the soap anion remove stains
The tail buries itself in the stain because it does not like water whilst the head attaches to water molecules and the turn to droplets to brush away the stain
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What is an unsaturated oil
An ester with at least one double bond
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Why do we hydrogenate unsaturated oils
To make them more viscous (runnier) for things like margarine
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How do you hydrogenate unsaturated oils
Bubble hydrogen through the oil under high temperature and pressure in the presence of a nickel catalyst
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is an alkane

Back

Chains of carbon atoms with single bonds

Card 3

Front

What is the general formula for an alkane

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is an alkene

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the formula for an alkene

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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