Organic chem

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Explain the propagation of free radical substitution
CH4 + Cl . > CH3. + HCl (CH3 being an intermediate) Then, CH3. + Cl2 > CH3Cl + Cl. (these steps repeat until termination)
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Termination in free radical substitution
Either Cl . + Cl . > Cl2 Or CH3. + Cl. > CH3Cl Or CH3 . + CH3. > CH3CH3
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Explain Markonikov's principle
When HX is added to a double bond, hydrogen atom(s) attach to the carbon with most carbon. Electrophile adds in the orientation that produces the most stable intermediate.
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Define electrophile
Acceptor of pair of electrons
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Define nucleophile
Donator of a pair of electrons
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Condition for addition of Hydrogen
Nickel catalyst at 140 C
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Condition for addition of steam
H3PO4 catalyst, 330 C, 6 MPa
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Intermediate of electrophilic addition
Carbocation (C+ ion)
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What happens if Cold dilute acidified KMnO4(aq) is reacted with alkene
(It's an oxidation of alkenes) Diol is formed
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What happens if hot dilute acidified KMnO4(aq) is reacted with RH=CH2 alkene
Alkene > aldehyde > (further oxidation) > carboxylic acid
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How about hot dilute acidified KMnO4 with methyl and R1R2=CH2
Two R groups > ketone // Ethene > carbon dioxide
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Uses of HDPE and LDPE?
HDPE: bottles and buckets // LDPE: Electrical insulation and dustbin liners
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Uses of PVC and PTFE
PVC: water pipes and gutters // PTFE: bridge bearings, non-corrosive tubing
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Why is it a bad idea to make halogenalkane through free radical substitution?
It's inefficient as it can make di-, tri-, tetra (the amount is uncontrollable)
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Condition of hydrolysis within nucleophilic substitution?
Heat with NaOH or KOH
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Difference between SN1 and SN2 mechanism?
SN1 happen step by step (breaking and forming occur separately - one leave then other enter). In SN2, it happens at the leaving and entering occur at the same time
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Which type of halogenalkane goes through SN1 and SN2?
SN1 =tertiary halogenalkane // SN2 = primary halogenalkane // SN1 & 2 = secondary halogenalkane
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Termination in free radical substitution

Back

Either Cl . + Cl . > Cl2 Or CH3. + Cl. > CH3Cl Or CH3 . + CH3. > CH3CH3

Card 3

Front

Explain Markonikov's principle

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define electrophile

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define nucleophile

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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