Organelles

Functions and structure

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  • Created by: ladyleo
  • Created on: 16-10-13 18:17
What is the function of the nucleus?
Houses nearly all genetic material; chromatin consists of DNA and proteins. Also has instructions for making proteins and chromatin creates chromosomes when cells divide.
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What is the function of the nucleolus?
To make RNA and ribosomes. These pass into the cytoplasm and proteins are assembled at them.
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What is the structure of the nucleus?
Contains darkened patches called chromatin. It is surrounded by a nuclear envelope, which has holes on it called nuclear pores; these pores allow relatively large molecules to pass through. The nucleolus is also contained within the nucleus.
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What is the function of the ER?
The RER transports proteins that were made on the ribosome's. These proteins may be secreted from the cell or placed on the cell surface membrane. The SER makes lipids which the cell needs.
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What is the structure of the ER?
The ER in general is a load of membrane bound sacs flattened called cisternae. The RER is studded with ribosomes.
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What is the structure of the Golgi?
It is a stack of membrane-bound, flattened sacs.
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What is the function of the golgi?
The Golgi recieves the proteins and modifies them- it is a packaging organelle. It could add sugar to the proteins and it packages them into vesicles. Some mod proteins may be sent to the surface of the cell so they are able to be secreted.
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What does the Mitochondria do?
Mitochondria are the site where ATP is produced during respiration.
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What is the structure of the Mitochondria?
It is spherical or sausage-shaped and has two membranes separated by a fluid filled space. The inner membrane is highly folded to form cristae and the central part of the mitochondrion is called the matrix.
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What is the structure of the chloroplasts?
Found in plant cells- they have two membranes separated by a fluid-filled space and there are an elaborate network of flattened membrane sacs called thylakoids inside the chloroplasts. A stack of thylakoids is called a granum.
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What is the function of the chloroplast?
To carry out photosynthesis and use carbohydrate molecules made from carbon dioxide and water.
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What are lysosomes?
Lysosomes are spherical sacs containing enzymes, which break down materials and this is surrounded by a single membrane.
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What are ribosomes?
Tiny organelles, in both the cytoplasm and the ER. They are at the site of protein synthesis and they act as an assembly line where mRNA from the nucleus is used to assemble proteins from the amino acids.
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What are centrioles?
Small tubes of protein fibres and they take part in cell division and they form fibres known as spindle. The spindle moves chromosomes around during nuclear division.
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Card 2

Front

What is the function of the nucleolus?

Back

To make RNA and ribosomes. These pass into the cytoplasm and proteins are assembled at them.

Card 3

Front

What is the structure of the nucleus?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What is the function of the ER?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the structure of the ER?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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