Organelles structure and function

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  • Created by: Steff06
  • Created on: 22-03-16 09:24
What is the cytoskeleton?
Fibres made of protein that keep the cell's shape stable by providing an internal framework.
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Describe the structure of flagella and cilia
Hair like extensions that stick out from the surface of cells. Each made up of a cylinder of 9 microtubules arranged in a circle. 2 microtubules in a central bundle.
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How can flagella and cilia move?
The microtubules can use energy from ATP.
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What are vesicles and what are they used for?
Membrane-bound sacs found in cells. They are used to carry many different substances around cells.
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What does the cell vacuole consist of and what does it do?
It is filled with water and solutes so that it pushes the cytoplasm against the cell wall. This makes it turgid and provides cell stability and support.
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What are plant cells made up of and what is their purpose?
Cellulose which forms a sieve-like network of strands that makes the wall strong and support the whole plant.
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Describe the structure of the nucleus?
When stained it shows darkened patches of chromatin. It is surrounded by a nuclear envelope and has nuclear pores which go right through the envelope. Nucleolus is inside the nucleus.
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What is the nuclear envelope?
A structure made of 2 membranes with fluid between them.
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Describe the structure of the nuclear pores
The holes are large enough for relatively large molecules to pass through.
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Describe the function of the nucleus?
Houses all the genetic material. Chromatin consists of DNA and proteins. Has the instructions for making proteins. Some of the proteins regulate the cell's activities. When cells divide, chromatin condenses into visible chromosomes.
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What does the nucleolus make?
RNA and ribosomes which pass into the cytoplasm and proteins are assembled at them.
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Describe the structure of the endoplasmic reticulum?
Consists of a series of flattened, membrane-bound sacs called cisternae. They are continuous with the outer nuclear membrane.
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What is the difference between smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum?
Rough ER is studded with ribosomes where as smooth ER does not have ribosomes.
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What is the function of rough endoplasmic reticulum?
Rough ER transports proteins that were made on the attached ribosomes. Some proteins may be secreted from the cell and some some will be placed on the cell surface membrane.
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What is the function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
Involved in making the lipids that the cell needs.
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Describe the structure of the golgi apparatus?
A stack of membrane-bound flattened sacs.
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What is the function of the golgi apparatus?
Receives proteins from the ER and modifies them. May add sugar molecules to them. Packages modified proteins into vesicles that can be transported. Some modified proteins may go to the surface and be secreted.
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Describe the structure of the mitochondria?
Spherical or sausage-shaped. 2 membranes separated by a fluid-filled space. Inner membrane is highly folded to form cristae. Central part is called the matrix.
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What is the function of the mitochondria?
Mitochondria produce most of the ATP during respiration.
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Describe the structure of chloroplasts?
2 membranes separated by a fluid filled space. Inner membrane is continuous with an elaborate network of thylakoids. Present on thylkakoid membranes and in the intergranal membranes.
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What is the function of chloroplasts?
Site of photosynthesis in plant cells. Light energy is used to drive the reactions of photosynthesis.
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Describe the structure of lysosomes
Spherical sacs surrounded by a single membrane.
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What is the function of lysosomes?
Contain powerful digestive enzymes. Role is to break down materials.
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Describe the structure of ribosomes
Tiny organelles. Some are free in the cytoplasm and some are bound to ER. Each ribosome consists of 2 subunits.
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What is the function of ribosomes?
Site of protein synthesis in the cell. Act as an assembly line where mRNA from the nucleus is used to assemble proteins from amino acids.
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Describe the structure of centrioles
Small tubes of protein fibres. Pair of microtubules next to the nucleus in animal cells and in the cells of some protoctists.
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What is the function of centrioles?
Take part in cell division. Form fibres known as the spindle which move chromosomes during nuclear division.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe the structure of flagella and cilia

Back

Hair like extensions that stick out from the surface of cells. Each made up of a cylinder of 9 microtubules arranged in a circle. 2 microtubules in a central bundle.

Card 3

Front

How can flagella and cilia move?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are vesicles and what are they used for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does the cell vacuole consist of and what does it do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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