Option D: Medicines and Drugs

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Drug
Chemical that affects how body works (for better or worse)
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Medicine
Substance (natural/synthetic) that improves health by assisting body's natural self-healing capabilities
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Placebo
Drug containing no active ingredient - 'fools' body into healing
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What do drugs/medicines alter?
Physiological state, incoming sensory experience, mood/emotion
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Ways of administering drugs
Injection (intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous), orally, rectally, inhalation, topically
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Therapeutic effect
Intended physiological effect
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Side effects
Unintended physiological effects
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Dosing regime
Amount of drug used for each dose + frequency of administration
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LD50
Lethal dose necessary to kill 50% of animal population tested
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ED50
Effective dose creating noticeable effect in 50% of animal population tested
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Therapeutic Window / Index
Difference between effective + lethal dose
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Tolerance
Person taking drug can get used to active ingredient, take larger and larger doses to get desired effect, getting closer to lethal dose - addiction
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What does the Risk-to-benefit Ratio do?
Determines whether side effects are acceptable in relation to curing effects
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Heart burn
When gastric juices overflow through esophagus
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Ulcers
Scars on walls of stomach
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Antacids
Weak bases - used to neutralise excess acidity in stomach - often contain alginates + anti-foaming agents
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What do alginates do?
Create layer of mucus on walls of stomach + in oesophagus, preventing heart burn
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What do anti-foaming agents do?
Prevent flatulence + burping (eg. dimethicone)
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What are analgesics?
Drugs that relieve pain
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What do mild analgesics do?
Intercept pain at source - are non-narcotics (eg. Aspirin + Paracetamol = derivatives of salicylic acid)
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What do strong analgesics do?
Relieve pain by temporarily bonding to pain receptors in brain to prevent transmission of pain impulses into brain - are narcotics / opioids (eg. morphine + derivatives)
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What is the order of increasing effect of the strong analgesics
Codeine, Morphine, Heroin / Diamorphine
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What are depressants?
Drugs that act on brain + spinal cord, changing communication between brain cells by altering concentration or activity of neurotransmitters
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What are some examples of depressants?
Ethanol (Alcohol), Benzodiazepines (Diazepam/Valium + Nitrazepam/Mogadon)
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What is an anti-depressant?
Eg. Fluoxetine Hydrochloride / Prozac - increases levels of serotonin (important neurotransmitter) in brain
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What are stimulants?
Largely opposite of depressants - Increase activity of brain + person's state of mental alertness (eg. amphetamines. Nicotine, Caffeine)
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What are amphetamines?
Stimulants that mimic adrenaline - are sympathomimetic drugs
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Examples of anti-bacterials
Sulfonamide drugs (eg. Prontosil), Penicillins - gave birth to antibiotics, which act against microorganisms
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What is Antibiotic Resistance?
When bacteria produce the enzyme penicillinase, which opens beta-lactam ring rendering it inactive - arises through genetic mutation
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What are superbugs?
Bacteria which carry several resistant genes
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What are antivirals?
Drugs which act against viral infections such as meningitis, measles, polio and AIDS
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How do antivirals work?
Some alter cell's genetic material/DNA so virus can't multiply - others block enzyme activity within host cell
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What is amantadine?
A drug used in the treatment of influenza - causes changes in cell membrane which prevents the entry of the virus into cells
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AIDS
Caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) - failure of immune system, as HIV infects white blood cells
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What drugs can be used to fight against HIV?
Antiretroviral drugs - eg. AZT which inhibits enzyme reverse transcriptase. Others block binding of HIV to cell membranes or inhibit assembly of new viral particles
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What are mind-altering drugs?
Hallucinogens, drugs that cause hallucinations
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What are some examples of hallucinogens?
Lysergic acid diethylamine / LSD, Mescaline, Psilocybin
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Cannabis Drugs
drugs made from cannabis - extract from leaves, stems, fruiting tops + resin of hemp plant
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What is the most common form of cannabis?
Hashish - resinous material - not narcotic derivative, but has sedative-hypnotic properties
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What is the major biologically active compound in cannabis?
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Substance (natural/synthetic) that improves health by assisting body's natural self-healing capabilities

Back

Medicine

Card 3

Front

Drug containing no active ingredient - 'fools' body into healing

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Physiological state, incoming sensory experience, mood/emotion

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Injection (intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous), orally, rectally, inhalation, topically

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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