Theme 1, Lenin's government

  • Created by: 99mscott
  • Created on: 23-05-18 18:39
What was the nature of Tsarist rule?
Widespread political repression, poverty, economic inequality.
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What was modern industry like?
2.4 million factory workers out of 140 million.
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Who were the 2 main oppositions to Nicholas II?
RSDP (Lenin) and the Social Revolutionists.
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Why did they introduce a Provisional Government?
February Revolution, 1917 - economic chaos, military defeat as Tsar was incompetent war leader.
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What were the strengths of the Provisional Government?
Reforms to replace tyranny (freedom of expression, assembly and religion) and promised new democratic elections.
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What were the weaknesses of Provisional Government?
Continued to fight WWI (drained economic resources) and Lenin had a lot of power.
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How did the Bolsheviks take power?
Lenin's message of "Peace, Land and Bread" gained stamina and Lenin organised a coup with Trotsky at the Winter Palace.
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What was the Decree on Land?
Peasants had the right to seize land from church and nobility.
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What was the Decree on Peace?
Bolsheviks withdrew from WWI and sought peace.
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What/when were the Workers' Decrees?
November 1917, established 8 hour max. working days and minimum wage.
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What/when was the Decree of Workers' Control?
April 1918, workers can elect committees to run factories.
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What was a weakness of the Revolution?
It occurred in Petrograd so the govt did not control other major cities or the vast rural areas.
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How did senior figures from past governments affect the Bolshevik authority?
Russian State Bank + State Treasury went on strike, denying Lenin funds.
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How many People' Commissars (sovnarkom) were there in 1917-18?
13, including Trotsky as PC of Foreign Affairs and Stalin as PC of Nationality Affairs.
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What were the downfalls of the People's Commissariats?
They were extremely disorganised - Stalin's was just a desk in the corner of the room, another was just a sofa.
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Why was the name 'People's Commissariats' chosen?
Demonstrated revolutionary nature as it was associated with the govt. after the French Revolution.
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Who supported the move towards a Bolshevik-dominated government?
Trades Union Council and First Conference of Female Factory Workers.
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What happened in January 1918?
Lenin refused results of the elections of November 1917 and closed the Constituent Assembly with a Bolshevik minority, claiming it threatened power of the soviets.
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What was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
1918, gave land to Central Powers to end WWI.
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Which political parties were expelled in 1918?
Mensheviks and SRs.
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When was the Civil War?
1918-1921.
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Who was the Civil War between?
The Communist Reds and the Reactionary Whites.
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Who did the Bolsheviks face opposition from?
The Russian Army (tsarist rule), SRS and Mensheviks (democratic), Anarchists (abolish govt.)
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Who sent troops to fight and why?
Britain, France and the US because they feared the revolution would spread and also wanted to gain territory in Russia.
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Which cities did anti-Bolsheviks try to capture?
Petrograd and Moscow.
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What were the consequences of the Civil War?
Allowed Lenin to establish comm control over the whole of Russia, radically changed the nature of the Bol. Party, led to a 'party-state' which was authoritarian and centralised.
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How was communist power extended?
Won against the anarchist army in Ukraine, authoritarian government in Siberia and Anton Denikin's army in Crimea.
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What were the changes to the government after the Civil War?
Centralised power, emergence of a 'one party-state', the Creation of Cheka and the Red Army.
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What were the features of centralised power?
Centralised economy (war communism), political centralisation through nomenklatura, authoritarian Red Army with conscriptions and harsh punishments run by Tsarist Generals.
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What were the features of the 'one-party state'?
The rising of the Politburo and decreased function of sovnarkom and local level communist dominance.
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What were the benefits of the Politburo?
Clear and effective leadership, made the decisions, reach decisions quickly as it only had 5-7 members whom he trusted; Stalin, Trotsky etc.
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Examples of the brutality of the Cheka
Church leaders impaled on spikes and Oryol victims frozen and put on display.
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Who led the Tambov rebellion and how many fighters?
Aleksandr Antonov, 50,000 fighters.
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What/when was the Tambov rebellion?
1920-1921, against grain requisitioning and Cheka brutality.
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What was the Crisis of 1921?
Peasant attacks on government grain stores along the Volga River and strikes in major cities against communist policies.
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How did the government deal with the Crisis of 1921?
The Red Army opened fire on unarmed workers in Petrograd.
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What/when was the Kronstadt rebellion?
1921, a naval base rebellion by soldiers who were horrified at the death of unarmed workers.
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What were the demands of the Kronstadt rebellion?
Immediate free and fair elections, release of all political prisoners, restoration of free speech and press, abolition of the Cheka and an end to War Communism.
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How did the communist government react to unrest?
By suppressing opposition political parties and creating a one-party state.
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What happened in February 1921-1922?
All Mensheviks in Petrograd and Moscow arrested and sent to Butyrka Prison, all SRs sent to prison or exiled.
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What was the 1921 Party Congress?
Russian workers and peasants dissatisfied with the regime.
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What were the reforms announced at the Party Congress?
NEP liberalised the economy, a ban on factions through "On Party Unity".
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

2.4 million factory workers out of 140 million.

Back

What was modern industry like?

Card 3

Front

RSDP (Lenin) and the Social Revolutionists.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

February Revolution, 1917 - economic chaos, military defeat as Tsar was incompetent war leader.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Reforms to replace tyranny (freedom of expression, assembly and religion) and promised new democratic elections.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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