Opposition to the New Deal

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What were Long, Townsend and Coughlin collectively known as?
The Thunder of the Left
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When did the power of the Thunder of the Left peak and why?
1934 - 11m unemployed, not everyone's been looked after, the New Deal isn't doing enough
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When did Roosevelt move to the left?
1935
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How many people listened to Father Coughlin's radio show?
35 million
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What was the name of Father Coughlin's radio show?
The Golden Hour of the Little Flower
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What was Father Coughlin's opinion of Roosevelt?
Originally supported Roosevelt, calling the New Deal "Christ's Deal", then believed Roosevelt was increasingly under the control of the banks and turned against him
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What was the name of the organisation that Father Coughlin set up?
The National Union for Social Justice
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What did Father Coughlin's organisation call for?
Monetary reform and the nationalisation of the banks (all under government's control)
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Why did Father Coughlin want the banks to be nationalised?
Because the banks are supposed to be there to help but people are making money off them
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Why was Father Coughlin a big threat?
Because people listened to him
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What happened to Father Coughlin after Roosevelt moved to the left in 1935?
He became an antisemitic nazi-sympathiser
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Who was Francis Townsend?
A Californian doctor
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Who was Father Coughlin?
An Irish American Catholic Priest
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What was the name of the organisation that Francis Townsend set up?
The Old Age Revolving Plan
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Describe Francis Townsend's plan
Everyone over the age of 60 gives up work (more jobs for younger people) / They get $200 a month to be spent in 30 days (stimulates the economy)
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How many signatures did Francis Townsend's plan have?
20 million (mostly old people)
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Why did Francis Townsend's plan not get passed by Congress?
It was too expensive - USA in Depression, would cost half the nation's GNP / Can't regulate if the $200 has been spent each month
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Who was Huey Long?
Senator of Louisiana
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Why was Huey Long considered a 'demagogue' in Louisiana?
He helped the state through huge public works programmes
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What was the name of Huey Long's scheme?
Share Our Wealth
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Describe Huey Long's plan
Can't have more than $3million in banks/earn over $1.8 million a year - excess confiscated and shared - giving each American $5000, enough for a car, radio and telephone; can educate everyone for free, give pensions, cheap food and a minimum wage
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How can you say Huey Long really influenced Roosevelt's Second New Deal?
Because Huey Long wanted to give everyone a free education, pensions, cheap food and a minimum wage - Roosevelt introduced some of these things
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How many people were members of Huey Long's organisation?
8 million
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How many clubs for Huey Long's scheme were there?
27'000
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Why was Huey Long a bigger threat than Coughlin and Townsend?
There was talk of him standing in the 1936 election against the Republicans and Democrats
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What happened to Huey Long in 1935?
He says that one of his rivals has '***** blood' and is shot by the man's son
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What was the name of Huey Long's book?
My First Days in the White House
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What was the sum of Long, Townsend and Coughlin's support?
63 million (8, 35 and 20)
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Describe what Huey Long wanted to do with the money that he would confiscate
Promised every American family a fortune of $5000, an annual income of $2000, pensions for everyone over 60, washing machines and radios, and an abundance of cheap food
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Who was the opposition and their parties in the 1936 election?
Al Landon (Republican) and William 'Liberty Bill' Lemke (The Union Party)
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Why was the 1936 election significant for Roosevelt?
It gave him the confidence to take on the Supreme Court because he thinks the American people are behind him
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What was the result of the 1936 election?
Roosevelt wins by a landslide
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Why did Roosevelt win the 1936 election?
Reduced unemployment by 4 million, moved to the left, farm prices had increased, he refers to the "forgotten man at the bottom of the economic pyramid"
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List the opposition of the right
Rich people, American Liberty League, states, Republican party (obviously) and the Supreme Court
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Why were rich people against Roosevelt?
They feel they're paying for the alphabet agencies through higher taxes (The Revenue Act) and because he was a 'class traitor'
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Which act made rich people pay higher taxes?
The Revenue Act
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What was the article in Harper's Magazine (for rich people)?
"They Hate Roosevelt"
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What did rich people refer to Roosevelt as?
The Cripple in the White House
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Who were the ALL?
The American Liberty League
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When/Why was the ALL set up?
In 1934 by businessmen who opposed Roosevelt's reforms
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Who mainly financed the ALL?
The Du Pont family - they ran all the chemical industries
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What did the ALL not like and why?
Unionisation (fear of strikes) / Minimum wage (reduces profits) / NRA 556 rules (like Soviet Russia) / SSA pensions (employer has to contribute, removes rugged individualism)
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Name 2 significant members of the ALL
Al Smith (1928 Democrat elections) / John Davis (1924 Democrat elections)
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Why were states against Roosevelt?
They felt that some alphabet agencies were against individual state's rights - TVA, FERA
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What alphabet agency was involved in the Butler Case?
AAA
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What alphabet agency was involved in the Sick Chickens/Schechter case?
NRA
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When was the Butler Case?
January 1936
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When was the Sick Chickens Case?
May 1935
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Describe the Butler Case
Ruling that 1933 acts in AAA that processed taxes were unconstitutional, and that the AAA was illegal because giving help to farmers was a matter for each state government, not the federal government
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Describe the Sick Chickens Case
4 Jewish brothers in a poultry business taken to court for selling a batch of diseased chickens, ruling that the (NRA) code they signed was illegal, therefore if the poultry code is illegal, the other NRA codes are also illegal
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Why did the Supreme Court oppose the New Deal?
Is a Republican Court (conservative), Roosevelt is becoming too powerful, wants to protect state's rights since the federal govt. is becoming too powerful, very pro-laissez faire, 4 most important judges were very conservative
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What were the 4 most important judges known as?
The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
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In the 140 years before 1935, how many laws did the Supreme Court find unconstitutional?
60
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From January 1935 to mid-1936 (18 months), how many laws did the Supreme Court find unconstitutional?
11
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What is the system of 'checks and balances'?
Where the 3 arms of government (President, Congress and Supreme Court) are kept in balance
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Why does Roosevelt take on the Supreme Court?
They're holding him up by going against his legislation / Concern they will hold up 2nd New Deal (SSA) which he's so proud of / Unfair to work with Republican court / They're 'out of date' with laissez faire / Encouraged by 1936 election win
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What is it called when Roosevelt believed the American people were behind him after the 1936 election?
He believes the people are giving him a mandate
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What was the name of Roosevelt's scheme to reform the Supreme Court?
The Judicial Procedures Reform Bill
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What was the average age of the Supreme Court's judges in 1936?
71
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Describe Roosevelt's plan to reform the Supreme Court
Everyone who reaches 70 must retire, for everyone who refuses to retire, Roosevelt can bring in his own judge / 6 judges over 70 in 1936, so potential of a Supreme Court of 15 that reflects his own political views
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How would Roosevelt persuade the American people that his reform of the Supreme Court was good?
More judges: get through work load quicker / More efficient / Judges out of date currently / Younger judges: more modern and in tune with the American people
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Why did Roosevelt face opposition to his Supreme Court reforms?
More judges = more debate = slower / Oldest judge was actually most liberal / SC should be independent of the President / May aim at Congress next / To get his own legislation pushed through / Not mentioned in 1936 campaign / Dictator / SC is sacred
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What word means that the Supreme Court was sacred?
Sacrosanct - shouldn't be touched/altered in any form
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What did Roosevelt's plan to reform the Supreme Court become known as?
Court Packing - ie. to fill the court with your own followers
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List the ways that suggest that Roosevelt was affected by his spat with the Supreme Court
No 3rd ND / Loss of reputation as straight-talking politician / Sneaky / No new agencies / Dem party divided - difficult to get new ND laws passed as they blocked his moves in Congress
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List the ways that suggest that Roosevelt was not affected by his spat with the Supreme Court
He was still re-elected in 1940 and 1944 / Sick Chickens case reversed / Several judges retired anyway / Roosevelt was able to bring in 7 of his own judges anyway
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What is the evidence that suggest that the threat of the Thunder of the Left was serious?
Long President / My First Days in the White House / 63 million supporters / Roosevelt moved to left / SSA, Wagner Act
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What is the evidence that suggest that the threat of the Thunder of the Left was not serious?
Share Our Wealth not passed / Half GNP on Old Age plan / LW Union Party and Communists didn't do very well in 1936 election / Loses 'raison d'être' after Roosevelt moves to left in 1935
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What is the evidence that suggest that the threat of the right was serious?
Opposition within own party / ALL set up and financed well / Roosevelt Recession: Congress puts pressure on him in fear of budget deficit
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What is the evidence that suggest that the threat of the right was not serious?
Re-elected anyway / Moves left not right / Defeats RW Republicans in 1936
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When did the power of the Thunder of the Left peak and why?

Back

1934 - 11m unemployed, not everyone's been looked after, the New Deal isn't doing enough

Card 3

Front

When did Roosevelt move to the left?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How many people listened to Father Coughlin's radio show?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the name of Father Coughlin's radio show?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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