Operant Conditioning and Social Cognitive Theory.

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Thorndike (1898)- Law of effect. Skinner (1938).
Thorndike stated that 'successful behaviour will be repeated and...if no satisfaction it will cease'. Skinner concluded that 'Behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences'.
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Learning by favourable consequences- Operant Conditioning.
Certain behaviours/ responses are learned but not always because of a simple stimulus response as in Classical (involuntary behaviour) but because they produce a pleasent consequence as in Operant (Voluntary behaviour).
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Operant Conditioning- Skinner (1938).
Argued all behaviours, adaptive and maladaptive, can be learnt this way using the principles of appropriate reinforcement.
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Reinforcers.
A reinforcer is anything that is used to strenghten behaviour (reward). Primary reinforcers are those that are fulfilling basic needs e.g. food, warmth love. Secondary reinforcers are those enabling acquisition of primary reinforcers e.g. money.
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Reinforcement.
Reinforcement is the process whereby the reinforce or reward is delivered. Appropriate reinforcement will strenghthen behaviour. E.g increase the chance of it recurring. It can be delivered as positive or negative reinforcement.
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Positive Reinforcement.
Strengthens behaviour by the addition of something desirable e.g. attention, feedback, sweets, feeling of being loved.
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Negative Reinforcement.
Strengthens behaviour by removal/ avoidance of something unpleasent e.g. a childs scream, nagging, fear of exams, feelings of insecurity.
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Punishment.
Punishment will weaken the behaviour not strengthen the behaviour- suppresses behaviour. Behaviour may well be seen to change, often temporary and contextual. Cannot learn behaviour via punishment.
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Shaping.
The reinforcement of successive approximations. Reinforcer/ment is used to build up relatively complex behaviours not usually displayed or part of the natural repertoire.
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Shaping cont.
Behaviour is broken down into small steps each of which is reinforced. Reinforce closer and closer approximations to the desired behaviours.
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Social Cognitive Theory- Bandura.
Observational learning/ modelling- learning as a result of watching and imitating others depending upon the consequences of their actions. Learning that requires some thought, reflection and understanding (cognitive skills). Involves 3 stages.
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Identification.
Need to identify with the person being observed selection of role models. Looks at status, similarity, appropriateness of behaviour and personality/ disposition.
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Modelling.
Bandura noted that children tend to model themselves on those who are: Powerful (e.g. Bart Simpson), Nurturing (e.g. parents) and those similar to them (same sex, age, peers).
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Imitation.
Learn much by observing, identifying with and then imitating role models. Facilitates the learning of many behaviours, skills, attitudes etc. E.g. children washing pots, bathing dolls, speaking to dolls as parents/teachers speak to them.
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Imitation cont.
Not confined to children, as adults speed when they see others doing so, communicating with patients. But we will only imitate the behaviour if we can see vicarious reinforcement.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Learning by favourable consequences- Operant Conditioning.

Back

Certain behaviours/ responses are learned but not always because of a simple stimulus response as in Classical (involuntary behaviour) but because they produce a pleasent consequence as in Operant (Voluntary behaviour).

Card 3

Front

Operant Conditioning- Skinner (1938).

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Reinforcers.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Reinforcement.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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