On the Move (migration)

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  • Created by: em42
  • Created on: 05-05-15 15:07
1. How would you describe demographic globalisation?
Migration has increased in our globalised world & millions of people every year move, il/legally every year. It is a challenge for both source (origin) & host (destination) countries.
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2. What effect has migration had on the UK's population?
It has increased the diversity of the population. Historically, the UK has been a country of net emigration yet this is changing.
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3. Where from and why did the UK encourage immigration in the '50s & '60s.
FRom colonies & former colonies such as the West Indies & India (Commonwealth countries). This met an economic need for low-wage workers & explains the current concentration of these ethnic groups in northern industrial cities e.g. Leeds & London.
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4. What maintained the post-colonial flow?
A combination of government policy, lack of immigration barriers, family ties, English speaking & available low-skill jobs.
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5. What type of migrants did the UK also accept, meeting its international obligations?
Refugees from war-torn parts of the world including: 30 000 Asian Ugandans in 1972 & 100 000 Somalis (ongoing conflict from early 1990s). Some refugees return home, but many can't. Those staying may apply for asylum & eventually become citizens.
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6. Immigration has not been evenly spread across the UK. Give examples of some regions which are more diverse than others.
London is more multi-ethnic than the northeast of England. Ethnic groups have concentrated in particular locations, such as Pakistanis in Yorkshire, Humberside & the West Midlands, & black Africans in London.
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7. How does immigration have a role in total population numbers?
Population numbers rise immediately if immigration exceeds emigration. Migrants tend to be young & hav higher fertility, boosting population by higher BRs (cultures may value larger families).
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8. How has the number of people seeking asylum in the UK changed?
It rose sharply from the late 1990s, peaking at 90 000 in 2002. Numbers had fallen by 75% by 2007 due to much tighter government policy.
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9. What resulted in the largest mass immigration in the UK's history?
Immigration form the 8 new eastern European member states since 2004. The number of eastern European migrants in 2008 was estimated to be ~1 mn.
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10. Where has there been growing concerns about the number of illegal migrants entering the EU (and ultimately the UK)?
Across the 'porous' EU borders along the Mediterranean & in eastern Europe.
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11. What are the advantages of border contols in managing migration?
Physical borders, policing, passports & visas allow governments to count people in & out & so keep track of net migration.
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12. What are the disadvantages of border contols in managing migration?
These systems are extremely costly (the UK plans to introduce 'electronic' border control in 2010, at a cost of £2 bn). Tight regulations may put off some visitors & migrants who are needed to fill skills gaps.
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13. What are the advantages of work permits in managing migration?
Work permit schemes allow temporary workers to be controlled & matched to skills shortages.
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14. What are the disadvantages of work permits in managing migration?
Work permits can be abused, with some not leaving when their 'time is up' & becoming illegal migrants.
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15. What are the advantages of refugees & asylum seekers in managing migration?
Prestige is gained by accepting vulnerable groups & respecting basic human rights.
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16. What are the disadvantages of refugees & asylum seekers in managing migration?
The public may perceive refugees & asylum seekers as a cost with few benefits attached. The asylum system is costly to administer.
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17. What are the advantages of integration in managing migration?
Citizenship tests such as those in the UK & USA might help integration by expecting a basic understanding of language & cultural norms.
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18. What are the disadvantages of integration in managing migration?
Critics argue that passing a test does not prevent social tensions & racism.
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19. What has recently happened to migration policy in the UK?
It has tightened as public concerns have risen. Policy has moved towards an Australian-style points-based immigration system. The system must balance the economic need for skilled workers & younger people to counteract the greying population.
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Card 2

Front

2. What effect has migration had on the UK's population?

Back

It has increased the diversity of the population. Historically, the UK has been a country of net emigration yet this is changing.

Card 3

Front

3. Where from and why did the UK encourage immigration in the '50s & '60s.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

4. What maintained the post-colonial flow?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

5. What type of migrants did the UK also accept, meeting its international obligations?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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