On Earth and Life

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  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 11-05-15 14:33

1. Which is not a key feature of Foote and Raup, Fossil preservation and the stratigraphic ranges of taxa?

  • When preservation is random and the original distribution of durations is exponential, the inference of durations, preservability and completeness is exact.
  • The completeness of the fossil record hinders the inference of the evolutionary rates and patterns
  • Reasonable approximations are possible given non exponential duration distributions and temporal and taxonomic variations in preservability
  • You can use these relationship to estimate original distributions of taxonomic duration, preservation probable and completeness given the observed range. No data on the occurences is required
  • There is a relationship bteween the true taxonomic durations, preservation probability and observed taxonomic durations
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2. Which is not a feature of Donlan (2005) Re-wilding North America

  • North America lost most of its large vertebrate species — its megafauna — some 23,000 years ago at the end of the Pleistocene.
  • And now Africa’s large mammals are dying, stranded on a continent where wars are waging over scarce resources.
  • Conservation for the 21st C and also for restoration of the evo and eco potential that was lost 13,000 yrs ag via ecological, evolutionary, economic, aesthetic and ethical grounds
  • ‘Pleistocene re-wilding’- achieved through ecosystem manipulations using species as proxies for extinct large vertebrates, and would change the underlying premise of conservation biology from managing extinction to actively restoring natural processe

3. Which is not a feature of Barnosky's (2011) Has the Earths 6th extinction already arrived?

  • Palaeontologists characterize mass extinctions as times when the Earth loses more than 1/2 of its species in a geologically short interval, as has happened only 5x in the past 540million years
  • Biologists now suggest that a sixth mass extinction may be under way, given the known species losses over the past few centuries and millennia
  • Differences between fossil and modern data and the addition of recently available palaeontological information influence our understanding of the current extinction crisis
  • Current extinction rates are higher than would be expected from the fossil record, highlighting the need for effective conservation measures.

4. Which is not a feature of Lavers, Why Elephants have big ears? (For dinosaurs)

  • Claimed they were no longer reptiles as the tetrapod tree showed that they were just a different as mammals were to reptiles
  • Bakkers 1960 collated info from palaeontologists, biologists and ecologists and reinterpreted the Mesozoic world
  • Made bold claim in the 90's that dinosaurs were warm blooded just like birds and mammals, as they have always been perceived as cold blooded
  • He explained his ling of reasoning based in the ecological consequences of differences in metabolic rate and the relationship between predator and prey

5. Which is not a feature of Trewick et al (2007) Hello New Zealand?

  • Whether modern NZ has a terrestrial link through time with the continent Zealandia or whether NZ present terrestrial existence is the product of tectonic activity initiated around 2.6 Ma?
  • There is decreasing evidence from molecular data that much of this biodiversity is the product of evolution following relatively recent colonization
  • It is widely accepted that the flora and fauna is primarily ancient and of vicariant Gondwannan origin
  • Oceanic islands, generally the products of volcanic activity, provide natural experiments as biological populations are well delimited and the age of islands can be determined using radiometric dating.

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