1. What does Haile et al in Ancient DNA reveals late survival of mammoth and horse in interior Alaska, reveal?
- Claims that the main cause of megafauna extinction was solely down to overkill and other factors such as climate, vegetation, hyper diseases and terrestrial impact did not contribute at all
- That the use of sedimentary DNA shows that these megafauna persisted in Alaska until 10,500 yr BP, as opposed to 13,000-15,000 yr BP which was shown by LADS
- SedaDNA showed that megafauna we extinct long before the onset of the Holocene and that they never overlapped with humans for several millenia
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2. Which is not a feature of Donlan (2005) Re-wilding North America
- Conservation for the 21st C and also for restoration of the evo and eco potential that was lost 13,000 yrs ag via ecological, evolutionary, economic, aesthetic and ethical grounds
- ‘Pleistocene re-wilding’- achieved through ecosystem manipulations using species as proxies for extinct large vertebrates, and would change the underlying premise of conservation biology from managing extinction to actively restoring natural processe
- North America lost most of its large vertebrate species — its megafauna — some 23,000 years ago at the end of the Pleistocene.
- And now Africa’s large mammals are dying, stranded on a continent where wars are waging over scarce resources.
3. Which is not a feature of Lavers, Why Elephants have big ears? (For dinosaurs)
- Made bold claim in the 90's that dinosaurs were warm blooded just like birds and mammals, as they have always been perceived as cold blooded
- Claimed they were no longer reptiles as the tetrapod tree showed that they were just a different as mammals were to reptiles
- Bakkers 1960 collated info from palaeontologists, biologists and ecologists and reinterpreted the Mesozoic world
- He explained his ling of reasoning based in the ecological consequences of differences in metabolic rate and the relationship between predator and prey
4. Which is not a feature of Vitosek (1997) Introduced species, a significant component of human caused global change?
- Human caused global environmental change are driven proximately by the industrial and agricultural enterprises of humanity, and ultimately by the explosive growth over the past 2C of both the human population and per capita resource use
- Consequences on invasions, no and variety of species intros makes clear that it is no exaggeration to say biological invasions are breaking down the biogeographic barriers that have created and maintained the major floral and faunal regions of earth
- Biological invasions are widespread and significant but cannot be a component of human caused global environmental change
- Humans move species beyond their native ranges both deliberately and inadvertently, and many of these species become established and spread in their new habitat
- Oceanic island invasions have always had a great impact on the native species, however recently so has continental islands and these invasions represent a human caused breakdown of the regional distinctiveness of Earths flora and fauna
- Distribution of invasion on continents, there is an inc in the no. of invading species per area from N to S until 1 reaches dry subtropical regions, invasions are relatively low in the tropics, then inc again in S temp areas
5. Which is not a feature of The rise of an atmospheric oxygen, Kump (2008)?
- Persistant anoxia of the oceans in the Protozoic is argued to have required at least 40% oxygen
- Fire is sustained only above 21% so the record of charcoal shows a % lower than this since the advent of forests on earth
- Fire is sustained only above 60% so the record of charcoal shows a % lower than this since the advent of forests on earth
- MIF disapear when oxygen levels reach 0.001% and iron is retained in ancient lithified soils when oxygen reaches 1%
- Physiological effects of and defenses against oxygen in plants and animals
- Most geological indicators of ancient atmospheric oxygen levels imply presence or absence
- Redox indicators from marine sediments, requiring that internal ocean processes that affect deep ocean oxygen levels and by looking at the effect that oxygen has had on carbon isotope fractionation