1. Which is not a feature of Lavers, Why Elephants have big ears? (For birds)
- Their wing size has decreased over the years for better flights and their beaks have adapted regarding their change in diet
- The age of the mammals is a period of diversification over the past 70 million years and also the age of the birds. Evolution of still in the age of dinosaurs?
- Birds are driven by powerful metabolic engines, maintain their bodies at a high/constant temps and have extremely high aerobic capacities (39-42'C) Warm blooded
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2. Which is not a feature of Lavers, Why Elephants have big ears? (For dinosaurs)
- Claimed they were no longer reptiles as the tetrapod tree showed that they were just a different as mammals were to reptiles
- Made bold claim in the 90's that dinosaurs were warm blooded just like birds and mammals, as they have always been perceived as cold blooded
- He explained his ling of reasoning based in the ecological consequences of differences in metabolic rate and the relationship between predator and prey
- Bakkers 1960 collated info from palaeontologists, biologists and ecologists and reinterpreted the Mesozoic world
3. Which is not a key feature of Foote and Raup, Fossil preservation and the stratigraphic ranges of taxa?
- The completeness of the fossil record hinders the inference of the evolutionary rates and patterns
- Reasonable approximations are possible given non exponential duration distributions and temporal and taxonomic variations in preservability
- You can use these relationship to estimate original distributions of taxonomic duration, preservation probable and completeness given the observed range. No data on the occurences is required
- There is a relationship bteween the true taxonomic durations, preservation probability and observed taxonomic durations
- When preservation is random and the original distribution of durations is exponential, the inference of durations, preservability and completeness is exact.
4. Which is not a feature of Donlan (2005) Re-wilding North America
- Conservation for the 21st C and also for restoration of the evo and eco potential that was lost 13,000 yrs ag via ecological, evolutionary, economic, aesthetic and ethical grounds
- North America lost most of its large vertebrate species — its megafauna — some 23,000 years ago at the end of the Pleistocene.
- And now Africa’s large mammals are dying, stranded on a continent where wars are waging over scarce resources.
- ‘Pleistocene re-wilding’- achieved through ecosystem manipulations using species as proxies for extinct large vertebrates, and would change the underlying premise of conservation biology from managing extinction to actively restoring natural processe
5. Which is not a process seen in Proterozoic ocean chemistry, Canfield (1998)
- Last large precipitation of BIF's around 1.8Gyr, which precipitated from an ocean whose bottom waters contained dissolved ferrous iron
- The sulphur isotope record indicates and increase of ocean sulphate, 2.3 Gyr, leading to an increased rate of sulphide from sulphate reduction
- Loss of sulphide in oceans middle to late Proterozoic
- The sedimentation processes terminated when aerobic bottom waters developed, oxidizing the iron and removing it from the solution
- Redox sedimentary burial of organic matter, iron and uranium, reflect the conditions previaling during the weathering