On Earth and Life

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  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 11-05-15 14:33

1. Which is not a feature of the Journal of Biogeography commentary (2005) Goodbye Gondwana?

  • The land that time forgot, or the ancient dinosaur forests of the NZ, unchanged for 600myr
  • Unchanging Gondwanic heritage is an important cultural icon
  • But there is no reason why dispersalist universe with a much diminished role for Gondwana cannot be as appealing with each taxon having its unique history a complex network of relationships reaching across the entire globe
  • The southern end of the world is where the two central ideas of historical biogeography, vicariance and dispersal, have had their most intense encounter
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2. Which is not a feature of Lavers, Why Elephants have big ears? (For dinosaurs)

  • He explained his ling of reasoning based in the ecological consequences of differences in metabolic rate and the relationship between predator and prey
  • Made bold claim in the 90's that dinosaurs were warm blooded just like birds and mammals, as they have always been perceived as cold blooded
  • Bakkers 1960 collated info from palaeontologists, biologists and ecologists and reinterpreted the Mesozoic world
  • Claimed they were no longer reptiles as the tetrapod tree showed that they were just a different as mammals were to reptiles

3. Which is not a process seen in Proterozoic ocean chemistry, Canfield (1998)

  • Last large precipitation of BIF's around 1.8Gyr, which precipitated from an ocean whose bottom waters contained dissolved ferrous iron
  • The sedimentation processes terminated when aerobic bottom waters developed, oxidizing the iron and removing it from the solution
  • The sulphur isotope record indicates and increase of ocean sulphate, 2.3 Gyr, leading to an increased rate of sulphide from sulphate reduction
  • Loss of sulphide in oceans middle to late Proterozoic
  • Redox sedimentary burial of organic matter, iron and uranium, reflect the conditions previaling during the weathering

4. Which is not a feature of The rise of an atmospheric oxygen, Kump (2008)?

  • Fire is sustained only above 21% so the record of charcoal shows a % lower than this since the advent of forests on earth
  • Redox indicators from marine sediments, requiring that internal ocean processes that affect deep ocean oxygen levels and by looking at the effect that oxygen has had on carbon isotope fractionation
  • MIF disapear when oxygen levels reach 0.001% and iron is retained in ancient lithified soils when oxygen reaches 1%
  • Physiological effects of and defenses against oxygen in plants and animals
  • Fire is sustained only above 60% so the record of charcoal shows a % lower than this since the advent of forests on earth
  • Most geological indicators of ancient atmospheric oxygen levels imply presence or absence
  • Persistant anoxia of the oceans in the Protozoic is argued to have required at least 40% oxygen

5. Which is not an 'Aristotle Four Causes'?

  • Final causes
  • Informal causes
  • Formal causes
  • Efficient causes
  • Materical causes


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