On Earth and Life

  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 11-05-15 14:33

1. Which is not a feature of The rise of an atmospheric oxygen, Kump (2008)?

  • MIF disapear when oxygen levels reach 0.001% and iron is retained in ancient lithified soils when oxygen reaches 1%
  • Persistant anoxia of the oceans in the Protozoic is argued to have required at least 40% oxygen
  • Fire is sustained only above 21% so the record of charcoal shows a % lower than this since the advent of forests on earth
  • Physiological effects of and defenses against oxygen in plants and animals
  • Fire is sustained only above 60% so the record of charcoal shows a % lower than this since the advent of forests on earth
  • Most geological indicators of ancient atmospheric oxygen levels imply presence or absence
  • Redox indicators from marine sediments, requiring that internal ocean processes that affect deep ocean oxygen levels and by looking at the effect that oxygen has had on carbon isotope fractionation
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Other questions in this quiz

2. Which is not a key feature of Foote and Raup, Fossil preservation and the stratigraphic ranges of taxa?

  • Reasonable approximations are possible given non exponential duration distributions and temporal and taxonomic variations in preservability
  • The completeness of the fossil record hinders the inference of the evolutionary rates and patterns
  • You can use these relationship to estimate original distributions of taxonomic duration, preservation probable and completeness given the observed range. No data on the occurences is required
  • When preservation is random and the original distribution of durations is exponential, the inference of durations, preservability and completeness is exact.
  • There is a relationship bteween the true taxonomic durations, preservation probability and observed taxonomic durations

3. Which is not a feature of the Journal of Biogeography commentary (2005) Goodbye Gondwana?

  • The southern end of the world is where the two central ideas of historical biogeography, vicariance and dispersal, have had their most intense encounter
  • The land that time forgot, or the ancient dinosaur forests of the NZ, unchanged for 600myr
  • But there is no reason why dispersalist universe with a much diminished role for Gondwana cannot be as appealing with each taxon having its unique history a complex network of relationships reaching across the entire globe
  • Unchanging Gondwanic heritage is an important cultural icon

4. What did Haile et al not conclude?

  • Revelation of mega-fauna and human overlap in the Americas shows that over continents should be reassessed too.
  • SedaDNA however needs to have been undisturbed since deposition and that the DNA has not migrated between strata.
  • SedaDNA should now only be used and not the use of macrofossil dating
  • Samples from modern environment samples is used to detect secretive organisms present at low densities, and this can be extended to extinct megafauna

5. Which is not a feature of Barnosky's (2011) Has the Earths 6th extinction already arrived?

  • Differences between fossil and modern data and the addition of recently available palaeontological information influence our understanding of the current extinction crisis
  • Palaeontologists characterize mass extinctions as times when the Earth loses more than 1/2 of its species in a geologically short interval, as has happened only 5x in the past 540million years
  • Biologists now suggest that a sixth mass extinction may be under way, given the known species losses over the past few centuries and millennia
  • Current extinction rates are higher than would be expected from the fossil record, highlighting the need for effective conservation measures.

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