1. Which is not a feature of Donlan (2005) Re-wilding North America
- ‘Pleistocene re-wilding’- achieved through ecosystem manipulations using species as proxies for extinct large vertebrates, and would change the underlying premise of conservation biology from managing extinction to actively restoring natural processe
- North America lost most of its large vertebrate species — its megafauna — some 23,000 years ago at the end of the Pleistocene.
- Conservation for the 21st C and also for restoration of the evo and eco potential that was lost 13,000 yrs ag via ecological, evolutionary, economic, aesthetic and ethical grounds
- And now Africa’s large mammals are dying, stranded on a continent where wars are waging over scarce resources.
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2. Which is not a process seen in Proterozoic ocean chemistry, Canfield (1998)
- Last large precipitation of BIF's around 1.8Gyr, which precipitated from an ocean whose bottom waters contained dissolved ferrous iron
- Loss of sulphide in oceans middle to late Proterozoic
- The sulphur isotope record indicates and increase of ocean sulphate, 2.3 Gyr, leading to an increased rate of sulphide from sulphate reduction
- Redox sedimentary burial of organic matter, iron and uranium, reflect the conditions previaling during the weathering
- The sedimentation processes terminated when aerobic bottom waters developed, oxidizing the iron and removing it from the solution
3. Which is not a feature of the Journal of Biogeography commentary (2005) Goodbye Gondwana?
- The southern end of the world is where the two central ideas of historical biogeography, vicariance and dispersal, have had their most intense encounter
- Unchanging Gondwanic heritage is an important cultural icon
- The land that time forgot, or the ancient dinosaur forests of the NZ, unchanged for 600myr
- But there is no reason why dispersalist universe with a much diminished role for Gondwana cannot be as appealing with each taxon having its unique history a complex network of relationships reaching across the entire globe
4. Which is not a feature of the Late Proterozoic Low Latitude Global Glaciation, Kirschvink (1992)
- Snowball Earth theory is criticized as 1) galcial units should be synchronou and they're not 2) climate fluctuations show strata and lithology similar and 3) floating ice packs would have halted all processes and made the oceanic bottom waters anoxic
- If the earth had normal obliquity during an equatorial glaciation we would expect that areas of high latitude would be colder than the equator
- Williams (1975) suggested that if the earths obliquity reached angles higher than 54' the relative annual balance would shift and warm poles more than equator, but criticised
- Extensive sea level deposits were formed by widespread continental glaciers which were in a few degrees of the equator
- Late Proterozoic glacial episodes marks a turning point in evolution life, but critics say we shouldn't suggest that evolutionary changes were made by glaciations by the removal of life from higher latitudes creating post glacial sweepstakes
- Large proportions of continental land masses were in the middle to low latitudes during the late Precambrian glacial episode, where most of the solar enegery would have been absorbed by the tropical oceans and reflected by the continents
5. Which is not a feature of Trewick et al (2007) Hello New Zealand?
- There is decreasing evidence from molecular data that much of this biodiversity is the product of evolution following relatively recent colonization
- Oceanic islands, generally the products of volcanic activity, provide natural experiments as biological populations are well delimited and the age of islands can be determined using radiometric dating.
- It is widely accepted that the flora and fauna is primarily ancient and of vicariant Gondwannan origin
- Whether modern NZ has a terrestrial link through time with the continent Zealandia or whether NZ present terrestrial existence is the product of tectonic activity initiated around 2.6 Ma?