On Earth and Life

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  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 11-05-15 14:33

1. Which is not a feature of Vitosek (1997) Introduced species, a significant component of human caused global change?

  • Distribution of invasion on continents, there is an inc in the no. of invading species per area from N to S until 1 reaches dry subtropical regions, invasions are relatively low in the tropics, then inc again in S temp areas
  • Consequences on invasions, no and variety of species intros makes clear that it is no exaggeration to say biological invasions are breaking down the biogeographic barriers that have created and maintained the major floral and faunal regions of earth
  • Biological invasions are widespread and significant but cannot be a component of human caused global environmental change
  • Human caused global environmental change are driven proximately by the industrial and agricultural enterprises of humanity, and ultimately by the explosive growth over the past 2C of both the human population and per capita resource use
  • Oceanic island invasions have always had a great impact on the native species, however recently so has continental islands and these invasions represent a human caused breakdown of the regional distinctiveness of Earths flora and fauna
  • Humans move species beyond their native ranges both deliberately and inadvertently, and many of these species become established and spread in their new habitat
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Other questions in this quiz

2. Which is not a feature of Donlan (2005) Re-wilding North America

  • ‘Pleistocene re-wilding’- achieved through ecosystem manipulations using species as proxies for extinct large vertebrates, and would change the underlying premise of conservation biology from managing extinction to actively restoring natural processe
  • And now Africa’s large mammals are dying, stranded on a continent where wars are waging over scarce resources.
  • North America lost most of its large vertebrate species — its megafauna — some 23,000 years ago at the end of the Pleistocene.
  • Conservation for the 21st C and also for restoration of the evo and eco potential that was lost 13,000 yrs ag via ecological, evolutionary, economic, aesthetic and ethical grounds

3. Which is not a key feature of Foote and Raup, Fossil preservation and the stratigraphic ranges of taxa?

  • You can use these relationship to estimate original distributions of taxonomic duration, preservation probable and completeness given the observed range. No data on the occurences is required
  • When preservation is random and the original distribution of durations is exponential, the inference of durations, preservability and completeness is exact.
  • Reasonable approximations are possible given non exponential duration distributions and temporal and taxonomic variations in preservability
  • The completeness of the fossil record hinders the inference of the evolutionary rates and patterns
  • There is a relationship bteween the true taxonomic durations, preservation probability and observed taxonomic durations

4. Which is not a feature of Retallack (2002) Carbon dioxide and climate over the past 300Myr?

  • The primary reason for the return of low CO2 was carbon consumption by hydrolytic weathering and photosynthesis, stimulated by mountain uplift and changing patterns of oceanic thermohaline circulation
  • Co2 and temperature have had a relationship since 300 Myr
  • CO2–temperature uncoupling has been proposed from geological time-series of carbon isotopic composition of palaeosols and of marine phytoplankton, which fail to indicate high CO2 at known times of high palaeotemperature
  • Co2 and temperature can be measured via physical chemistry, planetary geometry and current global modelling but not from time-series of geological data
  • Past CO2 highs were in times of catastrophic release of CH4 from clathrates, but of asteroid and comet impacts, flood basalt eruptions and mass extinctions.
  • Geological tests of this idea seek to compare proxies of past atmospheric CO2 with other proxies of palaeotemperature. For at least the past 300 Myr, there is a remarkably high temporal correlation between peaks of atmospheric CO2
  • 1) Stomatal density has changed by different partial pressures of CO2 2) warm palaeotemperature in the ocean corresponds with high atmospheric 3) There has been current CO2 levels in the past such as in the Early Tertiary

5. Which is not a feature of Barnosky's (2011) Has the Earths 6th extinction already arrived?

  • Current extinction rates are higher than would be expected from the fossil record, highlighting the need for effective conservation measures.
  • Palaeontologists characterize mass extinctions as times when the Earth loses more than 1/2 of its species in a geologically short interval, as has happened only 5x in the past 540million years
  • Differences between fossil and modern data and the addition of recently available palaeontological information influence our understanding of the current extinction crisis
  • Biologists now suggest that a sixth mass extinction may be under way, given the known species losses over the past few centuries and millennia

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