On Earth and Life

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  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 11-05-15 14:33

1. Which is not a key feature of Foote and Raup, Fossil preservation and the stratigraphic ranges of taxa?

  • When preservation is random and the original distribution of durations is exponential, the inference of durations, preservability and completeness is exact.
  • The completeness of the fossil record hinders the inference of the evolutionary rates and patterns
  • You can use these relationship to estimate original distributions of taxonomic duration, preservation probable and completeness given the observed range. No data on the occurences is required
  • There is a relationship bteween the true taxonomic durations, preservation probability and observed taxonomic durations
  • Reasonable approximations are possible given non exponential duration distributions and temporal and taxonomic variations in preservability
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Other questions in this quiz

2. Which is not a feature of Donlan (2005) Re-wilding North America

  • ‘Pleistocene re-wilding’- achieved through ecosystem manipulations using species as proxies for extinct large vertebrates, and would change the underlying premise of conservation biology from managing extinction to actively restoring natural processe
  • And now Africa’s large mammals are dying, stranded on a continent where wars are waging over scarce resources.
  • North America lost most of its large vertebrate species — its megafauna — some 23,000 years ago at the end of the Pleistocene.
  • Conservation for the 21st C and also for restoration of the evo and eco potential that was lost 13,000 yrs ag via ecological, evolutionary, economic, aesthetic and ethical grounds

3. Which is not a feature of the Late Proterozoic Low Latitude Global Glaciation, Kirschvink (1992)

  • Large proportions of continental land masses were in the middle to low latitudes during the late Precambrian glacial episode, where most of the solar enegery would have been absorbed by the tropical oceans and reflected by the continents
  • Extensive sea level deposits were formed by widespread continental glaciers which were in a few degrees of the equator
  • If the earth had normal obliquity during an equatorial glaciation we would expect that areas of high latitude would be colder than the equator
  • Late Proterozoic glacial episodes marks a turning point in evolution life, but critics say we shouldn't suggest that evolutionary changes were made by glaciations by the removal of life from higher latitudes creating post glacial sweepstakes
  • Williams (1975) suggested that if the earths obliquity reached angles higher than 54' the relative annual balance would shift and warm poles more than equator, but criticised
  • Snowball Earth theory is criticized as 1) galcial units should be synchronou and they're not 2) climate fluctuations show strata and lithology similar and 3) floating ice packs would have halted all processes and made the oceanic bottom waters anoxic

4. Which is not a feature of Barnosky's (2011) Has the Earths 6th extinction already arrived?

  • Differences between fossil and modern data and the addition of recently available palaeontological information influence our understanding of the current extinction crisis
  • Palaeontologists characterize mass extinctions as times when the Earth loses more than 1/2 of its species in a geologically short interval, as has happened only 5x in the past 540million years
  • Biologists now suggest that a sixth mass extinction may be under way, given the known species losses over the past few centuries and millennia
  • Current extinction rates are higher than would be expected from the fossil record, highlighting the need for effective conservation measures.

5. Which is not a feature of Trewick et al (2007) Hello New Zealand?

  • It is widely accepted that the flora and fauna is primarily ancient and of vicariant Gondwannan origin
  • There is decreasing evidence from molecular data that much of this biodiversity is the product of evolution following relatively recent colonization
  • Oceanic islands, generally the products of volcanic activity, provide natural experiments as biological populations are well delimited and the age of islands can be determined using radiometric dating.
  • Whether modern NZ has a terrestrial link through time with the continent Zealandia or whether NZ present terrestrial existence is the product of tectonic activity initiated around 2.6 Ma?

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