1. What is the equation for the second ionisation of oxygen?
- O2- (g) -> O2+ (g) + H2O
- O+ (g) -> O2+ (g) + e-
- O2+ (g) -> O3+ (g) + e-
- O+ (l) -> O2+ (g) + e- (s)
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2. What are Van Der Waals Forces?
- any intermolecular force
- ionic attraction
- electrostatic attraction between temporary dipoles and induced dipoles caused by movement of electrons in atoms and molecules.
- shared pair of electrons
3. What is dative covalent bonding?
- When there are less than 8 electrons in outer shell
- When both electrons come from one atom
- When there are more than 8 electrons in outer shell
- When atoms share more than one pair of electron e.g. in N2
4. What is the definition of the first ionisation energy?
- a high attraction between the electron and the nucleus
- the ability to remove all the electrons from the outer shell in an exothermic process
- the energy needed to remove 1 electron from each atom in 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1+ ions.
- the energy needed to remove 1 electron from each ion in 1 mole of gaseous 1+ ions to form one mole of gaseous 2+ ions.
5. How do the delocalised electrons in metallic bonding effect the melting point?
- They make the bonding between atoms weaker
- Because the shared pair of electrons create a strong intermolecular force
- The more electrons there are, the stronger the bonding will be and the higher the meling point because the positive metal ions will have more electrons to be attracted to
- They make the melting point lower because it stops the positive ions being attracted togther