OCR GCSE Psychology Unit 2 - Perception

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  • Created by: Maz
  • Created on: 02-06-13 19:54
What is sensation?
The physical process of receiving information from the environment via the senses.
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What is an example of sensation?
The eye receiving light waves.
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What is perception?
The cognitive process by which we interpret the sensory information. Perception transforms sensory data into meaningful sounds and images.
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What is an example of perception?
The brain interpreting light waves to see a room.
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What is a visual constancy?
The way in which we perceive things as staying the same eventhough the sensory data changes.
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What is colour constancy?
Lighting affects the colour of an object but the perceptual system allows us to see it as the same.
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What is an example of colour constancy?
When a light goes off in a room, the colour of an object looks to have changed but we know it hasn't.
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What is shape constancy?
The sensory information changes depending on the angle the object is viewed from, but our perceptual adjustments allow us to see the shape as staying the same.
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What is an example of shape constancy?
When a book is viewed from its side (facing the edges of the pages) it appears to have become thinner but we know it hasn't.
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What is depth perception?
The ability of our eyes and brain to add a 3rd dimension to everything we see.
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If an object blocks/lies across another object, the "complete" object is perceived to be closer. Name the depth cue.
Superimposition.
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If the object is above the horizontal halfway line, it is often seen as more distant than objects lower down the line. Name the depth cue.
Height in plane.
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An object's smaller size on your retina means it is farther away. Name the depth cue.
Relative size.
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Looking down a motorway, the outside lines appear to converge at a distant point, allowing us to interpret the distance of the road. Name the depth cue.
Linear perspective.
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Fineness is detail decreases the farther away the object is from the eye. Name the depth cue.
Texture gradient.
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What is a visual illusion?
When sensory data is misinterpreted. Our perceptual system makes incorrect adjustments to data and plays a trick on us.
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What is a geometric illusion?
When it seems that one line or another is somehow distorted and we get it wrong in our minds.
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What is an ambiguous figure?
It is a picture/drawing that can be seen in more than one way.
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What is a fiction?
Seeing something which is not actually there.
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The Muller Lyer illusion is an example of which kind of illusion?
A geometric illusion.
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The Necker Cube is an example of which kind of illusion?
Ambiguous figures.
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The Kaniza Triangle is an example of which kind of illusion?
Fictions.
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What is the core theory of perception?
The contructivist theory.
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What does the theory state?
The we construct our perception based on past experiences.
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Which type of processing does the constructivist theory support?
Top-down processing.
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What is top-down processing?
The brain sorts through objects collected from past experience including: prior knowledge, cultural experience, motivation, expectation and memory.
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What is perceptual set?
A tendency to perceive a scene, situation or object on the basis of expectation.
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What does context have to do with the constructivist theory?
What you are looking at may be perceived in a different way due to the context it is based around.
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What does motivation have to do with the constructivist theory?
Your state (how you feel) can affect what you see.
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How do visual illusions support the theory?
Illusions happen because our brains are too clever and it fools us into falling for them.
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Give 2 criticisms of the constructivist theory of perception?
It doesn't explain a newborn's ability to perceive the world and if perception is due to past experience, then we should learn from falling for an illusion (but we don't).
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What is the alternative theory of perception?
The nativist theory.
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Which type of processing does this theory support?
Bottom-up processing.
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What does the nativist theory state?
That we are born with all our perceptual functions ready to be used and don't have to rely on past experience.
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The nativist theory is data-driven. True or false?
True. We depend on external stimuli to help perceive something.
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How have infant studies been useful in explaining that perception is innate?
They allow us to show that perception is biological as an infant does not have sufficient "experience" but can still perceive things at a young age.
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What was the visual cliff study?
A study done to show that perception is innate. A "cliff" was set up with a checkerboard pattern, giving the illusion that there was a drop. The infant's mother stood on the opposite side of the drop but the majority didn't cross to the other side.
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What was the aim of Haber and Levin's study?
To investigate whether top-down or bottom-up processing is used in perception (whether past experience is used in perception).
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How many participants were there in the study?
9 students.
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What gender were the participants?
Male.
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How was the field divided?
Into 4 areas: an arrival area, a section for known-size obects, a section for objects with varying size and a section for geometric figures.
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What experimental design was used in this study?
Repeated measures.
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What did the participants estimate?
The distance at which the objects were placed away from the participants.
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What were the results of Haber and Levin's study?
That the estimates for the standard size objects were the most accurate but the estimates of the distance for the objects of varying sizes and the geometric figures were not so accurate.
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What did Haber and Levin conclude?
They concluded that participants found it easier to estimate the distance of the familiar objects because the relied on past experiences. This suggests that the constructivist theory (and so top-down processing) is a more reliable theory.
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What are the 3 evaluative points for Haber and Levin's study?
1. Gender bias (all male participants). 2.The sample of participants was small so it is difficult to generalise results. 3. Culture bias - completed in the USA and objects like Christmas trees may not be recognised in non-western countries.
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What is the application for perception?
Advertising.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is an example of sensation?

Back

The eye receiving light waves.

Card 3

Front

What is perception?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is an example of perception?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a visual constancy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

Annabel Chadwick

Fancy flash cards maz.

MrsMacLean

Wow! These flashcards are absolutely brilliant.  They're accurate, detailed and thorough!

Katieandleah

these have been brilliant!!

JoeSpringall

fab love 

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