OCR F322: definitions

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Hydrocarbon
An organic compound that contains only Carbons and Hydrogen's
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Saturated Hydrocarbon
A Hydrocarbon with single bonds only
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Unsaturated Hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond.
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Homologous series
Is an organic series with the same functional group but with each member differing by CH2
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Functional Group
Is part of an organic molecule responsible for its chemical properties
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Alkane
The homologous series without double bonds and the general formula CnH2n+2
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Alkene
The homologous series with a double bond and the general formula CnH2n
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Displayed formula
Shows the relative positions of all atoms in a molecule with bonds between them
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Structural formula
Shows minimal detail of the arrangement of atoms in a molecule
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Skeletal Formula
Formula with hydrogen's removed and only the bonds between carbon atoms show, not the atoms themselves.
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Structural Isomers
Isomers with the same molecular formula but a different structural formula
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Positional isomerism
A type of structural isomerism. When a functional group is on a different numbered carbon,
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Chain isomerism
A type of structural isomerism. When branches occur in a chain.
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Stereo isomers
Isomers with the same structural formula but a different arrangement in space around a double bond.
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E/Z isomerism
A type of stereoisomerism. Double bond stops rotation and different groups on the carbons of this double bond
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Homolytic Fission
When a covalent bond breaks giving an electron to each atom creating 2 radicals.
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Hetrolytic fission
When a covalent bond breaks and give both electrons to 1 atom forming 1 positive and 1 negative ion.
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Radical
A species with an unpaired electron
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Nucleophile
(nucleus loving) An electron pair Donator.
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Electrophile
(electron loving) an electron pair Acceptor
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Addition reaction
When a species ADDS to another species. Requires a double bond
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Addition reaction
When a species REPLACES another species in a reaction.
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Substitution reaction
When a molecule is REMOVED from another molecule forming a double bond
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Elimination reaction
When a nucleophile replaces a halogen.
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Nucleophile substitution
When a halogen replaces a H in a reaction. 3 steps I,P,T
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Free radical Substitution
When a species ADDS across a double bond.
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Electrophilic Addition
When crude oil is split into its components by their boiling points
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Cracking
When a long chain alkane are split into a shorter alkane and an alkene
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Combustion
When a compound is burnt completely in oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water
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Incomplete combustion
When a compound is burnt in oxygen to form carbon, or carbon monoxide, and water.
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Pi bond
Formed by the sideways overlap of adjacent p orbitals - always use diagram.
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Polymer
Long chain of monomers
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Monomer
Small monomer, usually a alkene, used to build up a polymer
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Oxidation
When oxygen is added to a molecule
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Oxidising agent
Acidified potassium dichromate
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Reflux
Used to make primary alcohols into carboxylic acids or secondary into ketones
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Distillation
Used to make primary alcohols into aldehydes or secondary into ketones.
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Ester
Formed when an alcohol and carboxylic acid react. -(C=O)-O-(CH2)-
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Percentage yield
Found by moles product/moles of reactant x100.
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Atom economy
Mr of desired product/Mr of all products x100
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IR spectra
Shows the absorption of IR radiation by bonds to show what bonds are present in a sample
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Mass spec
Shows the mass/charge for fragments of a molecule
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MS fragment
A piece of the molecule broke in MS. Allows us to piece together the starting molecule.
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Enthalpy, H
The heat energy stored in a chemical system
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Exothermic
When the enthalpy is smaller at then end of a reaction than at the beginning. Resulting in heat loss. Deltah -ve.
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Endothermic
When the enthalpy is greater at then end of a reaction than at the beginning. Resulting in heat being taken in. Deltah +ve.
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Activation energy
Minimum energy required to start a reaction by the breaking of bonds.
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Enthalpy profile diagram
Shows the enthalpy of the reactants and products along with the activation energy and enthalpy change.
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Standard conditions
Pressure of 100kpa and Temperature of 298K. In solution concentration of 1M.
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Standard state
The state we find a substance in under standard conditions.
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Standard enthalpy change of reaction
Is the enthalpy change that accompanies a reaction of 1 mol of reactants under standard conditions and in standard states
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Standard enthalpy change of combustion
Is the enthalpy change when one mol of reactant is burned completely in oxygen under standard conditions
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Standard enthalpy change of formation
Is the enthalpy change when 1 mol of product is formed from its constituent elements in standard states under standard conditions.
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Specific heat capacity, C
Energy required to heat 1g of substance by 1K.
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Bond enthalpy
Is the enthalpy change when 1 mol of given bonds is broken by homolytic fission in a gaseous state.
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Hess' Law
"if a reaction can take place by more than 1 route and the initial and final conditions are the same, the total enthalpy change is the same for each route."
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Rate of reaction
The change in concentration of a reactant or product in a given time.
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Catalyst
A species than lowers the activation energy of a reaction by providing an alternate route but is not used itself.
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Boltzmann distribution
Is the distribution of energies of molecules within a sample at a given temperature.
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Dynamic equilibrium
An equilibrium in a closed system where the rate of forward reaction equals that of the reverse reaction leaving constant concentrations of products and reactants.
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Le chatelier's principle
When a change is imposed on a system in dynamic equilibrium the position of the equilibrium will change to minimise the change.
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Greenhouse effect
The process by which absorption and subsequent emission of ir radiation by atmospheric gasses warms the lower atmosphere and the planet's surface
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Troposphere
Lowest layer of earths atmosphere surface to between 7km & 20km
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Stratosphere
Second layer of atmosphere contains ozone layer. From troposphere to ~50km
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Adsorption
Process by which a gas, liquid or solute is held to a solid surface - such as in a catalytic convertor.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A Hydrocarbon with single bonds only

Back

Saturated Hydrocarbon

Card 3

Front

A hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Is an organic series with the same functional group but with each member differing by CH2

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Is part of an organic molecule responsible for its chemical properties

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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