OCR chemistry AS textbook keywords

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  • Created by: Anna Wood
  • Created on: 02-05-15 18:49
acid
A species that is a proton donor
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activation energy
The minimum energy required to start a reaction by the breaking of bonds.
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addition polymer
A very long molecular chain, formed by repeated addition reactions of many unsaturated alkene molecules.
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addition polymerisation
the process in which unsaturated alkene molecules add on to growing polymer chain one at a time to form a very long saturated molecular chain.
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additon reaction
a reaction in whcih as reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule.
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adsorption
the process that occurs when a gas, liquid or solute is held to the surface of a solid.
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alicyclic hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure.
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aliphatic hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains.
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alkali
A type of base that dissolves in water forming hydroxide ions.
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alkyl group
an alkane with as hydrogen atoms removed often represented by R.
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amount of substance
The quanity who units are moles.
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anhydrous
A substances containing no water molecules.
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anion
A negativly charged ion.
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atom economy
the molecular mass of desired product / sum of molecular mass of all products x 100
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atomic orbitals
a region in within an atom that can hold upto two electrons with opposite spins.
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atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
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average bond enthalpy
the adverage enthalpy change that takes placewhen breaking by homolytic fission 1 mol of a given type of bond in the molecules of gaseous species.
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avogadro constant
the numbe of atoms per mole of carbon-12 isotope.
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base
species that is a proton acceptor
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biodegradable material
A substances that is broken down naturally in the enviroment by living organisms.
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Boltzmann distrubution
The distrubution of energies of molecules at a particular temperature, usually shown on graph
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bond enthaply
the enthaply change that takes place when breaking by homolytic fission 1 mol of given bond in the molecule of gaseous species.
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carbanion
an organic ion in which a carbon atom has a negative charge.
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carboncation
an organic ion in which a carbon atom has a postive charge .
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catalyst
a substance that increases the rate of chemical reaction without being used up in the process.
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cation
a positively charged ion
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cis trans iosomerism
a special type of E/Z isomerism in which there is a non hydrogen group and hydrogen on each C of the C=C double bond.
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cis isomer
the hydrogen are on the same side of the C=C bond. ( z isomer)
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trans iosomer
the hydrogens are on different sides of the C=C bond ( E isomer)
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compound
a substance formed from two ore more chemically bonded elements in a fixed ratio usually shown by a chemcial formula
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concentration
The amount of solute in mol , per 1dm3.
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1dm3
1000cm
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coordinate bond- dative bond
a shared pair of electrons which as been provided by one of the bonding atoms only.
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covalent bond
a bond formed by a shared pair of electrons
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cracking
The breaking down of long chained saturated hydrogencarbon to form a mixture of shorter chained alkanes and alkenes.
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curly arrows
A symbol used in reaction mechanisms to show the moverment of an electron pair in the breaking or formation of a covalent bond.
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dative covalent bond
A shared pair of electrons which has been provided by one of the bonding atoms only
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dehydration
elimination reaction in which water is removed from a saturated molecule to make a unsaturated molecule.
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delocalised electrons
electrons that have shared between more than two atoms.
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displacement reaction
a reaction in which a more reactive element displaces a less reactive element from an aqueous solution of the less reactive ions.
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displayed formula
A formula showing the relative position of all the atoms in a molecule and the bonds between them.
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disproportionation
The oxidation and reduction of the same element in a redox reaction.
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dynamic equlilibrum
The equlilbrum that exists in a closed system when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction.
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E/Z isomerism
A type of steroisomerism in which differnent groups attach to each carbon a C=C double bond may be aranged differently in space because of the restricted rotation of the C=C bond.
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electron configuration
The arrangement of the electrons in an atom.
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electronegativity
A measure of the attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of electron in a covalent bond.
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electron sheilding
the repulsion between electron in different inner shells. sheilding reduces the net att
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electrophile
An atom that is attraction to an electron rich centre or atom where it accepts a electrons to form a new covelent bond.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The minimum energy required to start a reaction by the breaking of bonds.

Back

activation energy

Card 3

Front

A very long molecular chain, formed by repeated addition reactions of many unsaturated alkene molecules.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

the process in which unsaturated alkene molecules add on to growing polymer chain one at a time to form a very long saturated molecular chain.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

a reaction in whcih as reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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