OCR 21st Century Science B7

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  • Created by: Caroline
  • Created on: 17-06-13 14:44
What is the role of the internal skeleton of vertebrates?
1. Support, 2. Movement, 3. Protecting the internal organs.
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How do muscles move?
Muscles are attached to bones by tendons. Muscles are found in antagonistic pairs - as one contracts the other relaxes. The contracting muscles pulls on the bone, causing it to move.
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What is a joint made up of?
1. Cartilage 2. Synovial Fluid 3. Tendons 4.Ligaments.
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What is the function of the cartilage?
A smooth layer on the end of bones to reduce friction by preventing the bones from rubbing together.
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What is the function of the synovial fluid?
Produced by the synovial membrane, also lubricates the joint to reduce friction.
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What is the function of the tendons?
Join muscle to bone. Transmit the force from the muscle to bone.
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What is the function of the ligaments?
Join bone to bone. Elasticated to allow movement and stabilise joint.
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Why do certain factors in a person's medical or lifestyle history need to be disclosed before an exercise regime is started?
This needs to be done so that a safe and effective exercise regime can be prepared and carried out. Factors include:Symptoms, family medical history, current medication, alcohol and tobacco consumption, level of physical activity&previous treatments.
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What does BMI stand for?
Body Mass Index.
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What does it indicate?
Fitness.
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What is the formula for BMI?
BMI = Body Mass (kg)/Height (m2)
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What needs to be taken in to consideration when measuring fitness? (Higher tier only)
1. How accurate the equipment is.- How close to the true value is it? Eg. when using scales. 2. Repeatability of results - How close together are all of your results? The closer together they are, the more repeatable and trustworthy your results are.
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What are the common injuries caused by excessive exercise?
Sprain, Dislocation, Torn Ligament and Torn Tendons.
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What are the symptoms of a sprain?
Dull, aching/sharp pain, swelling and bruising.
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What is the basic treatment for a sprain?
RICE.
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What does this stand for?
R- rest, I- ice, C- compression, E- elevation.
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Explain how Rest and Ice helps a sprain.
Rest - Immobilising the joint stops any further damage to the joint. Ice - Reduces swelling by cooling and restricting blood flow in the area.
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Explain how Compression helps a sprain.
Compression - A bandage should be tied around the joint to reduce swelling, however it must not be too tight as this will cut of the blood supply to the area.
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Explain how Elevation helps a sprain.
Elevation - The joint should be lifted as it will reduce swelling. This is because it will make it easier for the blood to get back to the heart.
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Describe the role of the physiotherapist in treatment of skeletal-muscular injury.
They will 1.Give advice on the best exercises to carry out. These will often be graded. 2.Give you therapies, eg. laser treatment. 2.Give you treatments, eg.cortisone injections.
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What is meant by a double circulatory system?
The heart is two circuits joined together. The first one receives deoxygenated blood from the body and takes it to the lung to be oxygenated. The second circuit carries the oxygenated blood to the heart and sends it out to the body.
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What does blood carry around the body?
It carries glucose and oxygen to the muscles and removes waste products such as carbon dioxide and urea.
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What is the blood made up of?
1.Red blood cells. 2.White blood cells. 3. Plasma. 4.Platelets.
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What are the functions of these components?
1.Red blood cells - Transport oxygen. 2.White blood cells - Fight infections. 3.Plasma - Transports nutrients, hormones, antibodies and waste around the body. 4.Platelets - Small fragments of cells that clot the blood at a wound.
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How are red blood cells adapted to their function?
1. The have no nucleus so there is more from for haemoglobin. 2. They are packed full of haemoglobin to bind to oxygen. 3. They have a bioconcave shape to increase the surface area to allow more oxygen exchange to occur.
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Describe the path that the blood takes through the heart. (Part 1)
Deoxygenated blood enters the heart through the vena cava. It travels into the right atrium, and then down to the right ventricle before leaving the heart and entering the lungs to be oxygenated through the pulmonary artery.
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Describe the path that the blood takes through the heart. (Part 2)
The now oxygenated blood travels back to the heart through the pulmonary vein, and enters the left atrium. It travels down the left ventricle and then leaves the heart and is delivered to the brain and body through the aorta.
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How many coronary arteries do we have and what do they do?
We have 2 coronary arteries and they supply the heart muscles with oxygen.
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What is the function of the valves and where are they found?
Valves are found between the atria and ventricles, and between the ventricles and pulmonary artery/aorta. Their job is to prevent the backflow of blood.
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Explain how chemicals are exchanged between cells and capillaries. (Higher tier only) (Part 1)
The arteries branch off into capillaries. A network of capillaries is called a capillary bed. Capillaries are very permeable as they are only one cell thick, allowing small molecules such as oxygen and glucose to diffuse out of the blood.
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Explain how chemicals are exchanged between cells and capillaries. (Higher tier only) (Part 2)
These small molecules form the tissue fluid on the other side of the capillary walls. These substances then diffuse out of the tissue fluid, and into the cells.
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Explain how this happens with waste products.
The waste products diffuse out of the cells and into the tissue fluid, before diffusing into the capillaries and being carried away by the blood plasma.
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Why is this process useful?
It allows the cells to get the nutrients it needs without one capillary having to supply every single cell.
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What is needed to be done in order to maintain a constant body temperature?
Heat gained (including heat released from respiration) needs to be balanced with heat lost.
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What should our internal body temperature be?
Approximately 37degrees.
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Where are the receptors that detect external temperature?
In the skin.
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What do the receptors in the brain detect?
The temperature of your blood.
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In which part of the brain does this happen?
Hypothalamus.
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Describe the process of negative feedback when trying to keep your body temperature constant. (Part 1)
If too hot: Temperature receptors detect that core body temperature is too high. The hypothalamus acts as a processing centre and automatically triggers the effectors, in this case being the sweat glands. The change is counteracted.
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Describe the process of negative feedback when trying to keep your body temperature constant. (Part 2)
If too cold: Temperature receptors detect that core body temperature is too low. The hypothalamus acts as the processing centre and automatically triggers the effectors, in this case the muscles. The change is counteracted.
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How do some effectors work? (Higher tier only)
Some effectors work antagonistically to create a more controlled and sensitive response.
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What process does the body carry out if it is too hot?
Vasodilation.
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Describe the process of vasodilation. (Higher tier only)
The blood vessels close to the skin's surface increase in diameter to increase the blood flow to the area. This makes the blood closer to the surface, meaning more heat can be lost to the surroundings. This cools your body down.
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What else does your body do if it is too hot?
Your sweat glands produce more sweat. This means that more can evaporate, cooling you down.
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What is a negative of this?
Increased sweating can cause dehydration if the water is not replaced. This means that your body can't sweat anymore, increasing your body temperature.
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What process does the body carry out if it is too cold?
Vasoconstriction.
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Describe the process of vasoconstriction. (Higher tier only)
The blood vessels near the skin's surface get smaller in diameter, restricting the blood flow to the area. This means that there is less blood close to the surface of the skin, meaning less heat is lost to the surroundings.
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What else does your body do if it is too cold?
Your muscles twitch rapidly, causing you to shiver. This increases respiration and warms up the tissue surrounding your muscles.
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Why is eating lots of process foods bad for you?
They contain lots of simple sugars which get digested and absorbed into your body very quickly. This causes your blood sugar level to rise rapidly.
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Which hormone is responsible for controlling blood sugar levels?
Insulin.
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What happens when your blood sugar level gets too high?
Your pancreas releases insulin which removes sugar from the blood, causing your blood sugar levels to return to normal.
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What are the two types of diabetes?
Type 1 and Type 2.
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Which type is particularly late-onset diabetes and what causes it?
Type 2. It is causes by obesity and a poor diet.
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When does type 1 diabetes occur?
When the pancreas stops producing insulin.
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How is it controlled?
By injecting insulin into you at meal times.
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What do you have to be careful of when doing this?
You have to make sure you have the right amount of insulin in the injection otherwise it might remove too much sugar and your blood sugar levels will get too low.
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When does type 2 diabetes occur?
When the body stops responding to your insulin or when the pancreas is not producing enough insulin.
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How is it controlled?
Through exercise and a carefully controlled diet.
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Explain how a carefully controlled diet can help to maintain a constant blood sugar level.
A diet high in fibre and complex carbohydrates is better as these get digested+absorbed into the blood much slower. This means that the body has time to get rid of the sugar (eg. by using it for respiration)before the blood sugar level gets too high.
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Why are bacteria good for industrial and genetic processes? (Part 1)
1.They contain plasmids so can be genetically modified. 2. They have a simple biochemistry so fewer other reactions will take place, causing less problems. 3.They reproduce rapidly so products can be made quickly.
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Why are bacteria good for industrial and genetic processes? (Part 2)
4.There are no ethical concerns with using bacteria for these processes. 5.They can produce complex molecules that cannot be made artificially.
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How can bacteria and fungi be grown?
On a large scale by the process of fermentation.
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What products can be made from fermentation of bacteria and fungi? (Part 1)
1.Antibiotics and other medicines. Eg.Penicillin is made from penicillium mould. 2.Single-cell protein. Eg. Quorn as a meat substitute.
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What products can be made from fermentation of bacteria and fungi? (Part 2)
3.Enzymes for making food. Eg.Cheese used to be made from rennet which is extracted from the lining of a calf's stomach. Now chymosin(the important enzyme in rennet)can be produced by genetically modified bacteria, creating a vegetarian substitute.
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What products can be made from fermentation of bacteria and fungi? (Part 3)
4.Biological Washing Powers. These work by the enzymes breaking down the stains. Eg.Amylase breaks down carbohydrate stains and lipases break down fat stains.
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What products can be made from fermentation of bacteria and fungi? (Part 4)
5.Biofuels. Yeast can be used to produce ethanol though anaerobic respiration. Microorganisms can be used to make biogas which is a fuel that is used for things such as heating, cooking+lighting. It is made by the fermentation of plant+animal waste.
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What is genetic modification?
Where a gene is transferred from one organism to another and continues to work.
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What are the main steps of genetic modification?
1. Isolate the desired gene from the DNA of a cell. 2.Replicate the desired gene. 3.Put the gene into a vector (plasmid or virus). 4.Insert the gene into a new cell.
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What are the main steps of genetic modification?
1. Isolate the desired gene from the DNA of a cell. 2.Replicate the desired gene. 3.Put the gene into a vector (plasmid or virus). 4.Insert the gene into a new cell. 5.Select the cells that have been modified.
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Explain how human insulin can be made by genetic modification.
1.The gene that produces insulin is isolated and replicated. 2.It is put into a vector. 3.It is then transferred into bacteria. 4.It is put in the fermenter, and human insulin is extracted as it is produced.
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Why is it a good thing that human insulin can be made by genetic modification?
It produces insulin that is exactly the same as insulin from humans so when it is used to cure type 1 diabetes, the person will not have an allergic reaction.
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What else can genetic modification be used to do?
Produce herbicide-resistant crops.
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How is this done?
1.Some plants are naturally resistant to herbicides. 2.The gene that is responsible for this is isolated and replicated. 3.It is put into a vector and transferred into any plant we want to become herbicde-resistant.
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What are the advantages of this?
They are useful to farmers as they can use really effective weedkillers without damaging their crops.
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What are the negatives of this? (Part 1)
1. Herbicide-resistant crops are more expensive than normal crops, putting food costs up. 2.People are worried that the gene many accidently get put into wild plants, making weeks hard to kill.
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What are the negatives of this? (Part 2)
3. It could encourage the use of fertilisers which will reduce biodiversity. It will also cause eutrophication, pollute water systems and get into food chains, causing bioaccumulation.
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How is DNA technology used in genetic testing? (Higher tier only) (Part 1)
1. DNA sample is extracted from white blood cells. 2.A gene probe is made to match the faulty gene that would cause the disorder, and is labelled with a fluorescent marker. 3.The gene probe is put in the DNA sample.
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How is DNA technology used in genetic testing? (Higher tier only) (Part 2)
4.A UV light is used to detect the gene probe. It will tell you whether the disorder is present, and if so where it is located.
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What is nanotechnology?
A new technology that used tiny structures that are about the same size as some molecules.
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How is nanotechnology used in the food industry? (Part 1)
1.To increase shelf life. Eg.clay particles can be put in packaging to stop oxygen and moisture from getting in.
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How is nanotechnology used in the food industry? (Part 2)
2.'Smart Packaging'. Nanoparticles can be used to change the properties of packing depending on the conditions. Eg.change of colour when the food goes off.
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How can stem cell technology be used to treat Leukaemia? (Part 1)
Leukaemia is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow. Bone marrow contains stem cells that can be made into any other type of cell. A bone marrow transplant can be done to replace the faulty bone marrow in the patients.
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How can stem cell technology be used to treat Leukaemia? (Part 2)
The transplanted bone marrow will produce healthy blood cells.
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What else could stem cell technology cure in the future? How?
Spinal cord injuries. This could be done by replacing damaged nerve tissue.
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What can biomedical engineering do?
Replace body parts.
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How?
The heart has a group of cells that determine how fast the heart beats. If these cells stop working they can be replaced by an artificial device called a pace maker. It is inserted under the skin+controls the heart beat through an electric current.
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How else can it replace body parts?
Faulty heart valves can be replaced - either by animal or mechanical valves.
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What is a perfect closed loop system?
A system that has no waste as all the outputs are used as inputs elsewhere in the system.
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What type of system is an ecosystem?
A natural closed loops system.
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Why is this?
Most of its waste products are not lost but used as reactants and food.
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What waste comes from ecosystems? (Part 1)
1.Oxygen(from photosynthesis) 2.Carbon Dioxide(from respiration) 3.Dead organic matter eg.fallen leaves, petals, fruits and faeces.
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What waste comes from ecosystems? (Part 2)
4.Mineral Nutrients. (Formed by microorganisms when their digestive enzymes break down organic matter. These nutrients are taken in by plants.
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What waste comes from ecosystems? (Part 3)
5.Reproductive Structures - Some organisms such as fish and plants produce large amounts of reproductive structures (eg.eggs,sperm,pollen,flowers&fruit). This is because not all of them grow into adult organisms.
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Why isn't overproducing reproductive structures wasteful?
The waste is used as food.
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Why aren't any closed loop systems perfect?
Some output is always lost. Eg. through the migration of birds or the loss of nutrients by water or air.
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What is a stable ecosystem?
An ecosystem where the inputs and outputs are balanced.
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Give an example of a stable ecosystem.
Rainforest.
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Why is vegetation important in an ecosystem?
1. Reduced soil erosion as there is increased interception and the roots hold the soil together. 2.Prevents extremes of temperatures. 3. Promotes cloud formation.
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How can humans damage ecosystems? (Part 1)
1.Use of fertilisers causes eutrophication. 2.Take biomass out of the system eg.over-fishing&unsustainable timber harvesting which removes habitats&food in the food chain.3.Deforestation-causes desertification, destroys habitats&silting of rivers.
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How can humans damage ecosystems? (Part 2)
4. Bioaccumulation from non-recyclable waste.
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Explain the process of Eutrophication. (Higher tier only) (Part 1)
Fertilisers are washed into the rivers by the rain which causes the algae to grow on the surface of the water. This stops light from reaching the plants and algae underneath so they cannot photosynthesise.
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Explain the process of Eutrophication. (Higher tier only) (Part 2)
Bacteria decompose the dead matter, using up oxygen. The oxygen is not replaced as there is no photosynthesis taking place so the organisms (eg.fish) under the water suffocate and die.
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Explain the process of bioaccumulation. (Higher tier only) (Part 1)
Humans produce non-recyclable waste which can end up in the water system. Small organisms can consume this, and it is stored in their tissue. Predators eat lots of these small organisms, and the waste is transferred into them.
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Explain the process of bioaccumulation. (Higher tier only) (Part 2)
This means that they know have a large amount of the waste stored in their tissue. The higher up the food chain you get, the more waste is inside the organisms.
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Why aren't human systems closed loops?
1.Humans produce non-recyclable waste which can't be used again within the system. 2.Many human systems use fossil fuels as an energy source.
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Why does crude oil not fufil the requirements of a closed loop system?
1.It brings inputs in from outside the system as the energy from crude oil originated from the sun. 2.It takes millions of years to produce+only seconds to use so it cannot be made again within the system.
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What do humans rely on ecosystems for?
'Ecosystem Services'. - eg. clean water, air, fish, game, fertile soil and pollination.
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How can the use of resources from ecosystems be sustainable?
Using the resources at a rate in which they can be replenished.
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Give two things being done to make it more sustainable. (Part 1)
1.Fishing quotas - a limit on the amount of fish you can catch so certain types of fish, eg. cod, don't become extinct from over-fishing.
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Give two things being done to make it more sustainable. (Part 2)
2.To make the production of paper and wood more sustainable companies are made to replant a tree for everyone they cut down.
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Why is sunlight a sustainable energy source?
Energy from the sun will never run out.
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What is it used for in ecosystems?
1.To make food by photosynthesis. 2.In agriculture: Powering equipment, for example lighting and heating in greenhouses and irrigation systems.
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How does conserving natural ecosystems cause conflict?
People have to choose between getting the resources they need and damaging the ecosystem, or protecting the ecosystem but not getting all the resources they need.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How do muscles move?

Back

Muscles are attached to bones by tendons. Muscles are found in antagonistic pairs - as one contracts the other relaxes. The contracting muscles pulls on the bone, causing it to move.

Card 3

Front

What is a joint made up of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the function of the cartilage?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the function of the synovial fluid?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

Megan Ashelby


Found this really helpful, thanks a lot :)

Caroline

I've just finished doing the whole module! Glad it helped!

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