OCR Physics B (Advancing Physics) Yr 1 Glossary

Fully inclusive collection of the definitions for the 1st Yr. collected from the textbook, revision guide and checked against past mark schemes.

Acceleration, a
The rate of change of velocity (Vector)
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Accuracy
A measure of how close a measurement is to the true value
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Accurate
Close to the true value
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Aliasing
Whenl lower frequency signals are created due to too lower sampling rate. These lower frequencies are not in the origional signal.
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Alloy
A material composed of two or more metals, or a mixture of metals and other materials
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Amorphous
Atoms are arranged with no large range order, they are arranged randomly within the structure
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Amplitude of a wave
The maximum displacement from the equilibrium position
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Analogue Signal
A signal that varies continuously and is not confined to defined levels
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Antinode
A position of maximum amplitude of oscillation on standing wave
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Antiphase
When two oscillations have a phase difference of pi radians or a path difference of half a wavelength
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bit
The smallest unit of digital information
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Brittle
Breaks by shattering on impact, it undergoes no plastic deformation before fracture
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Brittleness
The tendency of a material to break by crack propagation
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byte
A sequence of 8 bits, coded to represent 256 alternatives
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Calibration
Determining the relation between output and true input value
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Ceramics
Materials made up of bonded atoms with directional and local bonds
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Conductance, G
The ratio of I/V for a circuit component (Unit in Siemens, S)
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Coherence
Two sources of waves a coherent if they have a constant phase difference and the same frequency.
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Compression
When two forces act in opposite directions to compress an object along the line of action of the forces
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Conductivity, σ (Electrical)
A constant for electrical conductors, which refers to the degree to which a specified material conducts electricity (Unit S/m)
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Conductor (Electrical)
A material which conducts electricity well because it has many free charge carriers
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Conservation of Energy
During any interaction, the total energy before the interaction is the same as the total energy after the interaction
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Conservation of Momentum
During any interaction, the total momentum before the interaction is the same as the total momentum after the interaction (N2)
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Crack propagation
When the stress on a material is concentrated at the tip of a crack, often across a single bond, causing the crack to travel through the material from its surface.
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Cross linking of polymers
When links are added across molecular chains within a polymer making the material stiffer by limiting the bond rotation
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Crystalline
Particles in a material are arranged in a regular pattern over a large range
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Current (Electrical)
The rate at which charge flows through a pointing an electrical circuit (Unit in Amperes, A)
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Density, ⍴
The mass per unit volume
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Diffraction
The spreading of waves after passing through a gap or past the edge of an obstacle. Spread increased for narrower gap or increased wavelength
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Digital Signal
A signal that has defined levels and is represented by binary number
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Dislocation
A defect in the regular structure of a crystal or crystalline region of a material. Mobile within a pure metal making it ductile.
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Displacement, s
The distance travelled in a specified direction (Vector)
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Dissipation
A transfer of thermal energy resulting in an increase in internal energy, often of the surroundings
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Distance
The separation between two points in space, possibly along a curved path, with no reference to direction (Scalar)
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Drift velocity
The mean velocity of charge carriers in a conductor carrying an electrical current
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Ductile
A material that can easily be drawn into a wire without losing its strength
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Edge Detection
Highlighting only the edges in an image / Multiplying pixel value by 4, then subtracting the total of the 4 neighbouring pixel values. If answer is negative the pixel is made 0 (black)
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e.m.f, ε
The energy per unit charge given by any source of electrical supply to the charges set in motion.
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Elastic Deformation
When the material will regain its original shape after the deforming stress is removed
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Elastic Limit
The maximum stress at which an object returns to its original shape after the deforming stress is removed
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Elastic strain energy
The energy stored in a material when it is deformed elasticaly / Can be found as area underneath a F-x graph or per unit volume for area underneath a stress-strain graph
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Elasticity
The ability for a material to return to its original shape after the deforming stress has been removed
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Electronvolt, eV
The work done/kinetic energy gained lk when an electron is moved through a potential difference of 1 volt
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False Colours
Assigning different colours for pixel value ranges. Used to highlight different features of an image.
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Focal length, f
The distance from the centre of the lens to the focal point F
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Focal Point (Focus), F
The point where light from a very distant object on the axis of the lens is brought to a focus by the lens
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Force, F
The rate of change of momentum (N2) / the 'push' or 'pull' of an object associated with a change in its momentum (Unit Newtons, N)
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Fracture
When an object is broken into two or more pieces when placed under stress
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Fracture Stress
The stress at which an object fractures (breaks)
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Fundamental frequency
The smallest frequency of a standing wave, found when the node seperation is half a wavelength
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Grain boundary
The line along which grains meet in a crystalline material
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Gravitational Potential Energy, E-grav
The potential energy of a mass due to its position in a gravitational field
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Hard
Difficult to scratch or dent
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Hardness
A measure of how difficult it is to scratch or dent a material
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Hooke's Law
For small extenstions, force is proportional to extension by F=kx
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Hooke's Law region
The region of a stress strain graph where the stress is proportional to strain, material is deforming elastically
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Impulse
The product FΔt summed over the whole action of a force on an object resulting in a momentum change, Δp = Impulse
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Increasing Brightness
Increasing the lightness of all pixels in an image / Adding a fixed value to all of the pixel values
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Increasing Contrast
Increasing the range of pixel values in an image by multiplying all the pixel values by a fixed value greater than one.
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Inertia
The tendency of any stationary object to remain stationary or of any moving object to continue with the same momentum (N1)
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Insulator (Electrical)
A material which conducts electricity poorly because it has very few free charge carries
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Intensity
The energy per unit time carried by a wave / the energy per unit area on a surface
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Internal resistance, r
The resistance within a source of e.m.f that results in a drop of terminal p.d. when current is drawn from the source
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Iterative model
A mathematical treatment where small changes to variables are made at regular time intervals, Δt
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Kinetic Energy, E-k
The energy possessed by an object by virtue of its motion
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Kirchoff's 1st Law
At any electrical junction, the total current into the the junction = the total current out of a junction / Conservation of current
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Kirchoff's 2nd Law
Around any electrical circuit, the sum of all the e.m.f.s = the sum of all the p.d.s / Conservation of energy
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Limit of Proportionality
The end of the hookes law region on a stress-strain graph, material is still deforming elastically but not at a constant rate
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Longitudanal waves
When the oscillation of a wave is in the same direction as its direction of travel
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Malleable
Easy to hammer or press a material into a required shape
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Malleability
A measure of how easily a material can be hammered of pressed into a required shape
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Mass, m
The amount of matter in an object (Unit kg)
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Metals
Materials made up of metalically bonded atoms with non-directional and delocalized bonds
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Momentum, p
The product of the mass and velocity of an object (Vector)
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Newton's 1st Law
A stationary object will remain stationary, and a moving object with continue moving with the same momentum unless an external force acts upon it
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Newton's 2nd Law
When an external force acts on an object, it produces a change in momentum / Force = the rate of change of of momentum / F=ma for a constant mass
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Newton's 3rd Law
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
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Node
A position of minimum amplitude of oscillation on standing wave
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Noise
Variations, which may be random, superimposed on a signal
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Number density of charge carries, n
The number of mobile charge carriers per unit volume of a conductor
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Path difference
The difference in distance travelled by two waves to the same point
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Percentage Uncertanty
The uncertanty given as a percentage of the measurement
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Phase
Describes the stage in a wave cycle
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Phase difference
The difference in phase angle between two waves of the same frequency
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Pixel
A single picture element
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Plane wavefront
A wavefront which contains no curvature
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Plastic Deformation
When a material undergoes permanent deformation and does not return to its original shape when the deforming stress is removed
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Plasticity
Material can deform permanently
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Polarized wave
When a transverse wave oscillates in a single plane only
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Polycrystalline
A material that is composed of many small, differently oriented grains made up of regularly structured atoms within
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Polymers
Materials made from long chains of molecules
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Precise
Repeated measurements are close together
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Precision
A measure of how close repeated measurements are to each other
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Projectile
An object that is thrown or fired who's subsequent motion is affected by a gravitational field
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Random Error
An error in the results of an experiment which varies each time for the same setup
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Reducing Noise
Reducing the amount of random noise in an image / Replacing pixel values with the median of their neighbouring pixel values
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Refraction
The change in direction of a wave passing from one medium to another caused by its change in speed
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Refractive index, n
The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a material
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Resistivity, ⍴ (Electrical)
A constant for electrical conductors, which refers to the degree to which a specified material resists the flow of an electrical current (Unit Ωm)
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Repeatable
An experiment can be repeated multiple times to achieve the same results
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Reproducible
An experiment can be repeated by someone else using different equipment or results to achieve the same answer
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Resolution
The smallest detectable change in input
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Response time
The time interval between a change in input and the corresponding change in output
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Scalar
A quantity with magnitude but no direction
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Semiconductor
A material with intermediate conductivity between conductors and insulators, due to having a much lower density of free charge carries than conductors
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Sensitivity
The ratio of the output to the input
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Sensor Circuit
A circuit whose electrical properties depend upon environment variables and which can be used to monitor or measure those variables
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Speed
The distance travelled by an object per unit time with no account to direction (Scalar)
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Standing wave
The superposition of two progressive waves with the same wavelength, moving in opposite directions
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Strain, ε
The ratio of extension to original length
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Strain Gauge
A small electrical device which contains long lengths of coiled up wire on a foil back allowing it to detect deformation to a surface. Compression if resistance decreases and tension if restance increaseses.
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Strength
A measure of how much a material can resist being deformed by a force without breaking
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Strong
Large breaking stress, can withstand high stresses without deforming or breaking
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Stiff
Difficult to bend or stretch, small extension per unit force
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Stiffness
A measure of a material's resistance to stretching or bending
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Superposition
When two or more waves meet their displacements can superimpose. The resultant displacement is the sum of the displacements at a given instant
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Systamatic Error
An error in the setup of an experiment which is the same for every repetition using the same setup
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Tension
When two forces act in opposite directions to stretch an object along the line of action of the forces
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Transverse waves
When the oscillation of a wave is perpindular to its direction of travel
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Threshold frequency
The minimum frequency of light that will eject photoelectrons from a given surface
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Tough
Large energy required to break or create new surface area
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Toughness
A measure of how much energy a material can absorb before breaking
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Vector
A quantity with both direction and magnitude
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Velocity
The change in displacement of an object per unit time (vector)
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Wavefront
An imaginary line or surface that moves along with a wave. All points on the wavefront have the same phase.
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Work function, ɸ
The minimum energy required to eject photoelectrons from a given surface
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Yield Stress
The stress at which a large amount of plastic deformation takes place with a constant or reduced load
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Ultimate Tensile Strength
The maximum stress a material can withstand before breaking
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Un-Polarized wave
When a transverse wave oscillates in a randomly changing plane
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Young's Modulus, E
A measure of the stiffness of a material given by the ratio of stress over strain
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Valid
The results answer the origional question
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Validity
A measure of how well the results answer the origional question
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Zero error
The output for zero input
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A measure of how close a measurement is to the true value

Back

Accuracy

Card 3

Front

Close to the true value

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Whenl lower frequency signals are created due to too lower sampling rate. These lower frequencies are not in the origional signal.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A material composed of two or more metals, or a mixture of metals and other materials

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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