OCR Gateway C4

Who described atoms as solid spheres?
John Dalton
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Who came up with the plum pudding theory?
JJ Thompson
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Who did the gold foil experiment?
Rutherford (students Geiger and Marsden)
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Who found that electrons had fixed orbits?
Niels Bohr
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What charge do atoms have?
None
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What does the atomic number tell us?
The number of protons and the number of electrons
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Why do electrons stay in their orbits?
They stay because of the force of attraction between the positive nucleus and the negative electrons
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What do all elements in the same group have?
The same amount of electrons in their outer shells
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What do all elements in the same period have?
The same amount of electron shells
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Who came up with the law of triads?
Johann Dobereiner
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Who came up with the law of octaves?
John Newlands
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Why was Dmitri Mendeleev's periodic table different?
He left gaps for undiscovered elements
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How do you work out the number of neutrons an atom has?
Atomic mass - atomic number
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What is an isotope?
An element that has more neutrons than usual
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What is an ion?
An element that has gained or lost electrons.
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What are some properties of ionic compounds?
High melting and boiling points, soluble in water,and conduct electricity when dissolved in water
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What do ionic bonds occur between?
A metal and a non-metal
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What happens to the electrons in ionic bonding?
The metal atom loses its electron(s) to get a full outer shell. The non-metal atom gains them
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What is a metallic bond?
A strong electrostatic force between closely packed positive metal ions with a sea of delocalised electrons
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Why do metals have high melting points?
The strong forces between the ions need a lot of energy to break
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What is another name for the group 7 elements?
The halogens
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What are the group 7 elements?
Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine
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What is a displacement reaction?
A reaction in which a more reactive element takes the place of a less reactive on in a compound
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What happens to reactivity as you go down group 7?
The elements get less reactive
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What happens when a halogen reacts with a group 1 element?
A metal halide is made
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What is another name for the group 1 elements?
Alkali metals
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what is produced when an alkali metal reacts with water?
A metal hydroxide and hydrogen
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If a red flame is present, which element is burning?
Lithium
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If a lilac flame is present, which element is burning?
Potassium
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If a yellow flame is present, which element is burning?
Sodium
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What is a covalent bond between?
Non-metal atoms
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What happens in a covalent bond?
An even number of electrons is shared between two atoms so they have full outer shells
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What transition metal is used as a catalyst in the Haber process?
Iron
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What colour precipitate does copper make?
Bright blue
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What element makes a brick red precipitate?
Iron (III)
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What colour precipitate does iron (II) make?
Dark green
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What is thermal decomposition?
Breaking down a compound into two or more substances using heat
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What is a super conductor?
A metal that, at a very low temperature, has little or no electrical resistance
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What are super conductors used in?
Maglev trains, MRI scanners, the large hadron collider in Swizerland
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What are the stages in water purification?
Filtration, sedimentation, and chlorination
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Why do some impurities remain in the water after purification?
They are dissolved in the water and cant be filtered out
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What impurities can remain in the water?
Fertilisers, pesticides, and heavy metals
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Why is distilling sea water not practical?
It uses a lot of energy so it is expensive
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What do you use to test for sulphate ions in water?
Barium chloride
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What colour precipitate forms if there are sulphate ions?
White
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What do you use to test for halide ions in water?
Silver nitrate
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What colour precipitate forms if chloride ions are present?
White
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What colour precipitate forms if bromide ions are present?
Cream
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What colour precipitate forms if iodide ions are present?
Pale yellow
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Who came up with the plum pudding theory?

Back

JJ Thompson

Card 3

Front

Who did the gold foil experiment?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Who found that electrons had fixed orbits?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What charge do atoms have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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