OCR Gateway C3

What is a limiting factor?
The reactant that is completely used up when the reaction is over
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What factors affect the rate of reaction?
Concentration, temperature, and surface area
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Why does increasing the concentration increase the rate of reaction?
There are more particles in a given volume available for collisions
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Why does increasing the temperature increase the reaction rate?
The particles gain kinetic energy and are moving faster so there is more likely to be a successful reaction
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Why does increasing the surface area increase the reaction rate?
There are more particles exposed and available for collision
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Why do catalysts speed up the reaction rate?
They lower the activation energy and provide a surface for reactions to take part on
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What is conservation of mass?
The mass of the products is equal to the mass of the reactants
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What is the percentage yield?
The amount of product you make as a % of the amount you theoretically make
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Why don't most reactions have a yield of 100%?
Raw materials may not be pure, some product may be left in the apparatus, and the reaction may not have completely finished,
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How do you work out atom economy?
(Mass of useful product/mass of all products) x 100
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What are the problems with low atom economy?
Lots of waste - expensive to remove and dispose of, uses resources quickly, raw materials are expensive
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How do you calculate energy transferred?
mass of water x 4.2 x temperature change
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How do you calculate energy transferred per gram of fuel?
energy transferred/mass of fuel used
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Does an exothermic reaction give out or take in energy?
Give out
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Does an endothermic reaction give out or take in energy?
Take in
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What is an energy value of a bond?
The energy that is taken in to make that bond or given out when breaking that bond
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How are batch products made?
In small amounts to meet demand
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What is a disadvantage of batch processes?
High labour costs and not as efficiant
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How are continuous products made?
24/7 production and constantly working at full capacity
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What is a disadvantage of continuous processes?
Not flexible
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How are medicines made?
Batch process
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Why are medicines so expensive?
Labour costs, research and testing, raw materials, marketing and legal costs, development time, energy costs
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Why is developing new drugs so expensive?
Thousands of compounds need to be tested on living tissue and long-term trials need to prove effective
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How can you tell if a chemical is pure?
It will melt and boil at a fixed temperature and it will give the same result when tested using chromatography
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What is an allotrope?
A different structure of the same element. they have different physical properties but similar chemical properties
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What is graphite used for?
Pencils
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What is the structure of graphite?
Layers with a delocalised electron that moves along the layer. layers are only weakly attracted
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What are the properties of graphite?
High melting and boiling points, conducts electricity
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What is diamond used for?
Jewellery and cutting tools
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What is the structure of diamond?
Strong covalent bonds with no delocalised electrons
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What are the properties of diamond?
Hard, high melting and boiling points, doesn't conduct electricity
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What is buckminsterfullerene used for?
To carry and deliver drug molecules around the body
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What is the formula for buckminsterfullerene?
C60
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What are nanotubes?
They are fullerenes that can be used to reinforce graphite, transport drugs around the body, or as semi-conductors in electrical circuits
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What factors affect the rate of reaction?

Back

Concentration, temperature, and surface area

Card 3

Front

Why does increasing the concentration increase the rate of reaction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why does increasing the temperature increase the reaction rate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why does increasing the surface area increase the reaction rate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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