OCR Gateway B4

What is a community?
All plants and animals living in an ecosystem
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What is a population?
A group of organisms of the same species
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What are some ways of capturing insects?
Pooter, net, and pitfall trap
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How do you calculate population size?
(No. in 1st sample x no. in 2nd sample)/no. in 2nd sample previously marked
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What are the assumptions made when using the capture-recapture method?
No death or migration, sampling methods are identical, and marking hasn't affected survival of animals
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What is a belt transect?
A line across a habitat or part of a habitat
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What is zonation?
The change of organisms across a habitat based on abiotic factors
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What is biodiversity?
A wide variety of different organisms in one habitit
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What is the balanced symbol equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
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Why can't glucose be stored on its own in plants?
It easily dissolves and is lost from the cell
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What are the limiting factors of photosynthesis?
Temperature, CO2 levels, and light
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What are the main features of a plant cell?
Nucleus, vacuole, chloroplasts, cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm
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What are the main parts of a leaf's structure?
Wax cuticle, upper epidermis, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll, lower epidermis, stomata, and guard cells
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Why is the epidermis transparent and waterproof?
So light can get to the inner cells
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Why does the palisade layer contain chloroplasts?
So it can absorb a lot of light energy
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Why is the spongy mesophyll full of air spaces?
So gases can diffuse easily
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How is a leaf adapted to its function?
Thin, wide leaves, contains chloroplasts, stomata, vascular bundles, and guard cells
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What is a photosynthetic pigment?
A pigment that is present in chloroplasts which captures the light energy for photosynthesis
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What are the photosynthetic pigments?
Chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B, xanthophyll, and carotene
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What is diffusion?
The net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to one of low concentration
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Does diffusion use energy?
No
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What are the factors that affect diffusion?
Concentration gradient, temperature, and distance that the particles must travel
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What is osmosis?
The diffusion of WATER molecules from an area of high concentration to one of low concentration through a partially-permeable membrane
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What is a partially-permeable membrane?
A membrane that allows small particles in and out but not large ones
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What is crenation?
Shrinking an animal cell by osmosis
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What is lysis?
Bursting an animal cell by osmosis
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What does plasmolyed mean?
A plant cell that has lost water, causing the cell membrane to pull away from the inside of the cell wall
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What is a turgid plant cell?
One that is inflated by water
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What is a flaccid plant cell?
One that is limp
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Why do leaves need water?
Support, photosynthesis, to keep it cool, and to carry dissolved minerals
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In which part of the plant is the xylem the biggest?
The roots
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What does the xylem carry?
Water and dissolved minerals
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What does the phloem carry?
Water and dissolved food
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Are xylem or phloem cells alive?
Phloem
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What is active transport?
How plants get minerals across the cell membrane. Carrier molecules take nutrients across the membrane against the concentration gradient
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Is active transport passive?
No, it uses energy from respiration
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What mineral do plants need to make amino acids and proteins?
Nitrates
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What mineral do plants need to make cell membranes and DNA?
Phosphates
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What mineral do plants need to make enzymes?
Potassium
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What mineral do plants need to make chlorophyll?
Magnesium
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What is transpiration?
When a leaf loses water and pulls more up from the roots
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What affects transpiration rate?
Light intensity, temperature, air movement, and humidity
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What device is used to measure transpiration rate?
A potometer
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What is a detrivore?
An organism that eats dead matter
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What affects decomposition rate?
Temperature, amount of oxygen, amount of water, presence of micro-organisms
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What nutrients does decay recycle?
Carbon and nitrogen
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What are some methods of preserving food?
Canning, chilling, freezing, drying, adding salt or sugar, adding vinegar
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What types of pesticides are used in farming?
Herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides
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What is intensive farming?
Farming using lots of artificial fertilisers and energy. It produces a high crop yield
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What is organic farming?
Farming using no artificial chemicals
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What is biological control?
Use of animals to kill pests
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What is crop rotation?
Moving crops around so that the same crops don't grow in the same field each year
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What is hydroponics?
Farming using no soil. The supply of minerals is controlled and there are less pests
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What are some advantages of intensive farming?
Fewer weeds, fewer pests, less heat loss, high yield
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What are some disadvantages of intensive farming?
Fertilisers must be bought and tall plants need support
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What are some advantages of organic farming?
No expensive chemicals, no pollution or build-up in food chains, tastes better
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What are some disadvantages of organic farming?
Biological control is slow, crop yields reduces, products cost more
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What happens if pesticides build-up in a food chain?
Fish and birds can ingest a lethal dose and die
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a population?

Back

A group of organisms of the same species

Card 3

Front

What are some ways of capturing insects?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How do you calculate population size?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the assumptions made when using the capture-recapture method?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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