OCR Gateway B3

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What are the main parts of an animal cell?
Nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, ribosome, and cell membrane
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What happens in the mitochondria?
Cell respiration
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What happens in the ribosome?
Protein synthesis
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What is the structure of DNA?
Double helix
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Which bases pair together?
A and T, G and C
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What are proteins made of?
Amino acids
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Who discovered the structure of DNA?
Watson and Crick
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What are the main stages of protein synthesis?
DNA unzips, transcription - mRNA is made, mRNA leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm, mRNA joins to a ribosome, translation - mRNA acts as a code for tRNA, amino acids on neighbouring tRNA join together, chain folds to form protein
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What are the four main types of proteins and examples of each?
Carrier molecules - haemoglobin, hormones - insulin, structural proteins - collagen, enzymes
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What are enzymes?
Biological catalysts
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When do enzymes work best?
At their optimum temperature
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What is the lock and key theory?
Each enzyme has a unique 'active site' and only one certain type of substrate will fit
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What happens when an enzyme denatures?
The active site loses its shape and the enzyme will no longer work
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When does denaturing happen?
At high temperatures and extreme pH values
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What is a mutation?
A change in the gene code
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What can cause mutations?
Radiation, chemicals, or spontaneity
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Are all mutations harmful?
No
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How do you work out the Q10 value?
Rate at higher temperature/rate at lower temperature
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What is the balanced symbol equation for aerobic respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6H2O + 6CO2
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How do you work out the respiratory quotient?
CO2 produced/O2 used
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What does it mean if the RQ is over 1?
Anaerobic respiration is happrning
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What is the metabolic rate?
The speed of chemical reactions in the body
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What does anaerobic respiration not use?
Oxygen
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What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?
Glucose --> lactic acid (+ energy)
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What is oxygen debt?
When glucose isn't broken down properly during anaerobic respiration. Lactic acid forms and oxygen is needed to break it down
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What is mitosis?
Cell reproduction that results in two genetically identical diploid celld
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What is cell differentiation?
When cells become specialised
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What are the advantages to being multicellular?
Bigger, cell differentiation takes place, more complex, can travel further, less things likely to eat you
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How many chromosomes do diploid and haploid cells have?
Diploid cells have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) and haploid cells just have 23 chromosomes (no pairs)
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What are the main stages of mitosis?
Each chromosome copies itself, spindle forms with chromosomes along the equator, chromosome single strands move to poles of cell, the cytoplasm divides, two genetically identical daughter cells are formed
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What are the main features of a sperm cell?
Acrosome, haploid nucleus, midpiece with mitochondria, tail
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What is in the acrosome?
Enzymes to get through the egg's coating
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What is fertilisation?
Fusing of male and female gametes
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What is the cell called once fertilisation has happened?
A zygote
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What are the main stages of meiosis?
Chromosomes copy themselves, similar chromosomes pair up and sections of DNA get swapped, cell divides, daughter cells divide again to produce four genetically different daughter cells
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What are white blood cells for?
The immune system
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What are platelets for?
Clotting blood and forming scabs
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What is plasma?
Transportation liquid
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What are arteries and how are they adapted?
They carry blood away from the heart and they have thick muscular and elastic walls
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What are veins and how are they adapted?
They carry blood to the heart and have a large lumen and valves to stop backflow
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What are capillaries and how are they adapted?
They carry blood through tissues and have a thin, permeable wall to allow materials to be exchanged
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Where do red blood cells get their colour from?
Haemoglobin
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What are some other adaptations of red blood cells?
Bi-concave shape - bigger surface area, more O2, no nucleus - more space for O2, very small - can fit through capillaries
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What happens when haemoglobin binds to oxygen?
It forms oxyhaemolgobin
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What are the main features of a plant cell?
Nucleus, chloroplasts, cell wall, cell membrane, vacuole, and cytoplasm
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What are the main features of a bacterial cell?
single circular strand of DNA and a flagellum for swimming
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What are three ways to measure growth?
Length, wet mass, and dry mass
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Which is the most accurate method?
Dry mass
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What are the most rapid phases of growth?
Just after birth and puberty
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What are the main parts of the right side of the heart?
Pulmonary artery, vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle
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What are the main parts of the left side of the heart?
Aorta, pulmonary vein, left atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventricle
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Why does the left ventricle have a thick wall?
To pump blood at a high pressure around the body
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What happens in a double circulatory system?
One system takes deoxygenated blood to the lungs and the other takes oxygenated blood around the body
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What are stem cells?
Unspecialised cells
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Why are embryonic stem cells more useful than adult stem cells?
Embryonic cells can specialise into any type of cell whereas adult ones are limited
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Where do embryonic stem cells come from?
A blastocyst
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What can stem cells be used for?
To grow new organs for people who need transplants or as an alternative to animal testing
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What are the main stages of selective breeding?
Select important characteristic, choose parents that display that characteristic, select best offspring, repeat process
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What are the problems with selective breeding?
Small gene pool, less variation, health problems
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What are the main stages of genetic engineering?
selection of desired characteristics, isolation of responsible genes, insertion of genes into other organisms, reproduction of GM organisms
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What is a problem with genetic engineering?
We don't know the long term side-effects
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What is a clone?
Genetically identical individuals
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What are the stages of cloning?
DNA extracted from organism A, nucleus removed from egg cell of organism B, DNA from A put into egg cell from B, egg put into foster mother, clone of A is born
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What was the first successfully cloned animal?
Dolly the sheep
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What are the risks of cloning?
Low rate of success, research into human cloning creates ethical problems, Dolly died of old age despite being only 7
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What are the stages of cloning plants?
Tissue sample collected, sample placed into agar jelly containing nutrients and auxin, samples start to grow, shoots planted into compost
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happens in the mitochondria?

Back

Cell respiration

Card 3

Front

What happens in the ribosome?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the structure of DNA?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which bases pair together?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

Pokemon/Trainer

I can see you've worked hard on this, it's very good

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