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how many w/m2 does the sun emit out to earth?
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what is the radius of the earth?
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how do you then work out the area of the earth?
1366 times pie times 6.371m^2=1.7e^17
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where is it greatest and what is this model called?
energy is distrubuted unevenly, it is greatest at the equator as this is a large surface area, energy balance model, energy balance model
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what do you divide the 1.7e^14 by? and what does this equal?
4pier^2 because need to divide over all area of the earth= 342w/m
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how much of this is reflected? and how much is reflected due to ice albedo?
1/3 is reflected (240w/m2 is reflected due to ice/albedo)
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what is the relationship between temperature and emission of radiation called?
stephan boltzman constant multiplied by the 4th power of temperature
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why is temp on earth 18 degrees and not -18 degrees?
greenhouse gas effect plays a really important role, energy is lost high up in the atmosphere but green house gases trap it in
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what happens in the difference of a cold clear night and a cloudy night?
clouds trap this heat and reemit it back down to earth, but on a clear night radiation is emitted into the atmopshere
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when looking at an infrared picture of the earth, what are the swirly patterns?
storms systems and big concentrations of clouds
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what is the order of the electromagnetic spectrum?
gamma waves, x ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwaves, radiowaves
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what does a high wavelength mean?
more absorbtion
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if you look on a graph it looks like all co2 is absorbing all the heat, why isnt it?
because the lines aren't vertical but at a slope, partial absorption at the edges of these peaks
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small changes in c02 cause the climate to change dramatically but what happens if you increase it even more?
absorption will tailor off, absorption isn't linear, small changes are most significant
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what are the main drivers of climate change? - 12
changes in the atmosphere composition and circulation, changes in they hydological cycle, clouds, changes in solar output, hydrosphere,(rivers/lakes), hydosphere(oceans), crysosphere, biosphere, land surfcae, biosphere, volcanic activity, human influ
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what are the 4 predictions what will happen to climate?
continued the same(medium cropland, low agriculture area and medium air pollution), or rise steeply(med crop and polu), leveleed out(low crop, pasture and med polu) or decrease(med cropland, med low air polu)
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what % of energy, transport, commericla buildings, industry, agriculture, deforestation and land use change, water and waste emit c02?
energ-26%, transport-13%, commercial buildings-8%, industry-19%, agriculture- 14%, forestry-17%, water/waste-3%
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what is the second most important emitter?
aerosols, either natural(volcanic dust, deserts nand wildfires), anthropogenic processes(fossil fuel burning products)
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what happens when particulates come out of the volcano?
gases and sut such as so2 come out, gases oxidise to solids(so4), transport is depednent on meteorology, water will nucleate on particles, farming and modifying clouds and particles will rain out
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does aerosols make clouds brighter or darker?
brighter, means more reflective,
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what are teh direct effects of sunlight?
scattering and absorbtion of radiaiton
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what does unperturbed mean?
no change, just contains natural aerosols as hasnt reacted with anthropogenic influeces yet
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hwow does cloud/albedo/ towney effect (1st indirect affect) affect it?
increased CDNC (cloud droplet number concentration)
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what happens in the second indreict affect, albrecht effect?
drizzle, suppresion, increased liquid water content(LWC), increased cloud height, increased cloud lifetime
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what are semi-direct effects?
heating causes cloud burnoff
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what do aerosols produce?
spatially heterogeneous forcing
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what is the albedo of fresh snow, grass, forests, grasslands, concrete, moon and earth avergae,ocean and deserts?
80-90, 25-30, 10-20, 10-25, 17-27, 6-8, 31, 10-60, 50
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where is the highest albedo?
north Africa, Canada and Iceland,
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what is vegetation?
part not covered by cropland or anthropogenically used grassland
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what is a big player in recent food prices?
bio-fuel production
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why is area of grassland likely to increase?
feeding an increasing population
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why is area of grassland likely to decrease?
rising animal product demand met by extremely intensive farming
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why would cropland area increase?
bio energy consumption
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what would reforestation do?
decrease in croplands and pasture forcing, change in diet, caused by natural vegetation
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how important are changes in the suns variability?
negligible, very small, has an effect on stratospheric chemistry and episodes of extreme weather in europe
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how important are changes in volcanic actiivty?
cant predict how many will happen in the future, , s02 released can oxidise to form sulfate aerosols, some can reach stratosphere, above clouds!, sunset formed by particiles reacting with sunlight
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what happens at the hadley cell?
warm air rises at the equator, travels north, and when reaches poles, sinks as it is colder and more dense to equator
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what happens at the polar cell?
descending air, right in nh and left in south, post easterly winds, then air ascends at around 60 degrees
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what are the ferrel cells?
inbetween hadley and polar, descending air from hadley cell travels in nh towards the north pole,goes right in NH, coriolis force deflects it and south goes left , creates mid latitude westerlies, polar front between polar and ferrel cell
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why do we have different cells reflecting to places in different areas?
Coriolis force, angular momentum
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where does air rise
inter tropical convergence zone, storms are found here as there is the most uncertainty and disruption, high latitude storms and tropical thundrestorms
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where does air fall?
in the extra tropics and over the poles
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what do jet streams do?
change the cells caused by the coriolis force, right in nh and left in sh
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how do cyclones form?
unstable cold polar air and warm tropical maritime air, cold air pushes south and warm air north, denser faster moving air overtakes warm air, warm air spirals upwards, cold air cuts of intrusion of warm air at occuled front, front are reestablished
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how does coriolis force work?
warm front and cold front are trying to over take each other and this is what causes air to divert
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how does salt play a role in the oceans?
the cold, more dense, more saline waters sinks and this is called convection, warm air is less dense, less saline so stays on top and this produces convection currents
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what % of the earth do oceans take up?
70%, avergae depth 3.7km
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what are the names of the four ocean basins?
atlantic, indian, southern ocean and the pacific
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what is the oceans and atmosphere mas?
ocean mass is 1.4 imes 10^21, and atmopshere is 5 times 10^18
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what % is made up by salt?
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what is the specific heat capacity?
the amount of energy needed to raise one kg by one degree=mass times heat capacity
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where does quickest circulation take place?
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so why does ocean have a much bigger effect?
it has a higher specific heat capacity, so hard to warm up but once it has, it is hard to lose
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where is it most saline in the earth?
30 n and south of the equator when there are low rains and high winds, and warmer temp, more important in high latitudes
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what are some of the examples of deep ocean circulation systems?
antartica intermediate water,north atlantic deep water, antartica bottom water(dominat)
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how does the thermohaline system work?
strongly bound by bathmetry(ocean topography), deep water travels south anf surface water north and west-ocdan convenyor belt, cold more dense, more saline water sinks convection, freshwater warm, less dense replaces- currents
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what is it called when wind diverts ocean circulation systems north and south?
wind dirving upwelling
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how does coriolis force from jet streams west to east?
the oceans and water are covering more of the earth than the spinning of the earth, it wants to move away from the axis, n s line, but gravity pulls it back in, this balances and we find out they are moving just as fast
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how does coriolis force from jetstreams work from east to west?
the air/water is moving west, slower than the world is rotating, air/water wantsto omve towards the n s axis but earths surface stops it falling towards the centre of the earth, balance of these draws it to the poles, now moving same slow speed
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why is there no coriolis force at the equator?
blob of air/water wants to move away and to axis, and gravity and the earths surface control the force, so no movement
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what is geostrophy?
when the pressure gradient frce equals the corilis force
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what is an ocean gyre?
large ciruclation system of ocean currents driven by global winds and forcescreated by the earths rotaion, movement of this drives the ocean conveyer belt which ciruclates water around the planet, coriolis pushes water into the center
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whatis upwelling?
because of wind differences between land and sea, it is ofcusedon the west sides of contintents and at the equator , rising of cooler, sense nutriet water to replace warmer nutriet depleted water
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how much c02 emitted from power stations goes into the atmopshere, photosytheiss and underwater photosythesis?
50% goes in the atmosphere, 25% in photosythesis and 25% in underwater photosythesis
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what is a carbon sink?
rapid increase in c02
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what does the dissolution mean and how is it applied to carbon?
breaking up/seperating into parts, of carbonate weathering, carbonate sedimenets, silicate weathering causing decrease in cabon
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what does c02 plus water equal?
carbonic acid
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what does carbonic acid plus proton equal?
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what does bicarbonate+proton equal
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what is ph a measure of?
proton concentration
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what does the rate of c02 entering and leaving the atmosphere dependent on?
gradient between the exchange of carbonic acid and atmospheric c02
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what are two of the importantregional controls on ocean biogeochemsitry?
iron fertilisation(volcanic iron) and upwelling
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describe a structure of a cell?
cell wall, cell membrane, chloroplast(photosytheis), nucleas (controlling acitivity through gene expression), vacuole storage and mitochondria(convering clucose to energy(ATP)
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what are the roles of basic nutrients?
availbale to plants from waterand exchange of air eg C H O
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what are examples of primary macronutrients?
Consumed in large quanties by plants and [resent in large quantitis in plant matter, N P K
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what are exmaples of secondary macronutrients?
generally required in smaller quantiies, not limitating for most plankton, Ca, Mg, S, Si
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Whatare micronutrients?
Not all necessarily required but often beneficial to grwoth, more bioligical acitivity if available, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cl, Mo, B
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WHAT CAN a lack of Fe cause?
restrict phytoplankton from growth,it is enriched in the mantle and realisaed by volcanoes
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what is upwelling?
high phyoplankton concentrations draw c02 out of the atmosphere of west sides of contintents and at the equaotr, coriolis will translate the wind and move it west over the sea water, cold water nutrient replaces warm unnutrient water
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what is carbon needed for?
backbone of plant biomolecules, strach and cellulose
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hydrogen used for?
building sugars, used to provde proton gradient diriving transport within cell, obtained from water
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necessary for respiration, generating ATP from sugars, PRODUCED DURING PHOTOSYTHEIS
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what is nitrogen used for?
essential component of all proteins
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what is phosporus used for?
, required for photosytheis, used for cell signaling, component of RNA AND DNA
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What is pottassium needed for?
activates enqymes used in photosytheissand respiration, used to build cellulose
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how long arethe regular cycles andhow long arethe shorter cyces?
10'000 regular cycles and shorter 1-2000 year events that dominate the climate system
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we know that heat is moved northwards to the poles, but we can cool it my removing the NAD AND THE AIW, why might this happen?
easist way is to change the salinity of the water in the high latitude north atlantic to stop it from sinking,
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what was the name of the events in greenland which changed circulation in the n atlantic?
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what is the el nino cycle?
is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific
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what is the la nina cycle?
La Niña is the positive phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation and is associated with cooler than average sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocea
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what year was themyths that global warming stopped?
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what is normal state?
winds blow warm surface waters to the west?, wind drives upwelling off coast of s america
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wat are normal conditions in the circulation?
walker cell cycle, storng westerly winds, 1997
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what happened in 1998?
el nino conditions, weak westerly winds and no walker circulation
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what is phytoplankton like in el nino and la nina?
el nino- low concentration, la nina- high concentration
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what does AMOC
atlantic meridional overturning circulation, decline in stregth over time
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what are heinrich events?
A Heinrich event is a natural phenomenon in which large armadas of icebergs break off from glaciers and traverse the North Atlantic. First described by marine geologist Hartmut Heinrich, they occurred during the past glacial periods or "ice ages" and
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what is meant to happen to rainfall in the future?
likely to increase especially in higher latitudes in winter
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why is there meant to be more rainfall?
because a warmer atmopshere can hold more moisture, wet get wteer, dry get drier
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what is the radius of the earth?



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how do you then work out the area of the earth?


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where is it greatest and what is this model called?


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what do you divide the 1.7e^14 by? and what does this equal?


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