OCD Research Flashcards

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OCD (Genetic): Carey and Gottesman (1981)
Found an 87% concordance in mono zygotic twins.
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OCD (Genetic): Samuels et al. (2007)
Used gene mapping, found that hoarding compulsions are linked to chromosome 14.
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OCD (Genetic): Groothest et al. (2005)
70 years of twin studies, found that symptoms were heritable; 45 - 65% genetic influence in children, 27 - 47% in adults.
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OCD (Genetic): Lenane et al. (1990)
Used family studies, found that 30% of an OCD sufferers first degree family also had the disorder.
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OCD (Biochemical): Rachman (2004)
"There is no more evidence that patients with OCD have more or less serotonin than patients with other anxiety disorders or healthy controls".
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OCD (Biochemical): Dolberg (1996)
SSRIs produce a functional decrease in the amount of serotonin.
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OCD (Biochemical & Drug Therapy): Diccinelli et al. (1995)
Conducted a meta-analysis of 36 studies to assess the worth of antidepressants - found that they are effective short term and more effective than non-serotonergic drugs
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OCD (Anatomical): Evans, Lewis and Iobst (2004)
Found increased brain activity in areas identified by Baxter, when OCD symptoms are produced by phobic stimuli.
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OCD (Anatomical): Soriano - Mas et al (2007)
Found various anatomical differences between OCD patients and healthy controls - the orbital frontal cortex and caudate nucleus appear larger, attempted to categorise people (OCD or not) by their brain structure (77% correct).
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OCD (Anatomical): Comer (2011)
Intensity of disorder increases/decreases if areas of the brain are damaged. Patient shot himself in the head causing damage to the orbital region and caudate nucleus, this lead to a dramatic reduction in symptoms.
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OCD (Anatomical): Baxter et al (1992)
OCD sufferes have an over-active orbital frontal cortex (the stuff of obsessions) and dysfunctional neural circuits, namely in the corpus striatum (the stuff of compulsions).
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OCD (Drug Therapy): Flament et al. (1985)
Found anti-depressants superior to a 5-week placebo treatment.
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OCD (Psychosurgery): Kelly & Cobb (1985)
75% of 49 patients displayed improved symptoms 20 months after psychosurgery.
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OCD (Psychosurgery): Greenburg et al. (2008)
Found a symptom reduction and functional improvements in 18 out of 26 psychosurgery patients.
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OCD (Psychosurgery): Hindus et al. (1985)
conducted a longitudinal study 3 and 7 years after treatment finding that only few displayed improvement in their condition.
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OCD (Drug Therapy): Beroquist et al. (1999)
Looked at the effect of low doses of the anti-psychotic RISPERIDONE, finding that the treatment was effective due to its dopamine lowering effect.
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OCD (Cognitive Explanation): Rachman and Hodges (1987)
Some individuals more susceptible to obsessional thinking because of increased vulnerability to genetic factors, depression ect. - links cognitive with other explanations.
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OCD (Cognitive Explanation): Davison and Neale (1994)
OCD patients can't distinguish between fantasy and reality - faulty thought processes.
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OCD (Cognitive Explanation): Barrett and Healey (2002)
Compared OCD, anxious and non-clinic children finding that OCD children had higher ratings of cognitive appraisals - cognitive concepts occur in childhood.
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OCD (Cognitive Explanation): Salkovskis (1991)
"OCD patients show a number of characteristic thinking errors linked to their obsessional difficulties" "May expect pregnant women to show an increase in symptoms"
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OCD (Cognitive Explanation): Buttolph & Holland (1990)
69% of women with OCD had worsening or onset of symptoms during pregnancy/childbirth - inflated sense of personal responsibility.
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OCD (Cognitive Therapies): Freeston (1996)
Challenged the dysfunctional beliefs of OCD patients; 'must be important because I think about it' - asked to keep thought diary, showing the unimportant things they think about.
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OCD (Cognitive Therapies): Eddy et al. (2004)
Found that behavioural therapies are more effective, however cognitive therapies tend to be more effective at treating strong obsessions --> CBT?
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OCD (CBT): Cordioli (2008)
Meta - analysis of CBT, found to be effective (reduction of symptoms) in 70% of cases.
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OCD (CBT): Vogel et al. (1992)
Found that CBT reduces obsessional thinking during sessions, but no between treatments - little value in the real world?
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OCD (Behavioural Explanation): Meyer and Cheeser (1970)
Classical Conditioning - Demonstrated how compulsions are learned behaviour that reduce heightened anxiety levels brought on by obsessions.
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OCD (Behavioural Explanation): Skinner (1948)
Superstition Hypothesis; OCD = bodily actions associated with reduced relief of symptoms 'magical thinking' - negative reinforcement, reduction of anxiety = Operant Conditioning.
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OCD (Behavioural Explanation): Weissman
Anxiety disorders run in families - supports Social Learning Theory.
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OCD (Behavioural Treatments): Schwartz et al. (1996)
Reported behavioural therapies to be effective in reducing symptoms, and also that they incur biochemical changes - supports explanation.
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OCD (Behavioural Treatments): Franklin et al. (2000)
Large scale effectiveness study, 60% reduction in symptoms = effective!
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OCD (Behavioural Treatments): Rachman (2004)
This form of therapy may be less appropriate for patients whose symptoms mainly consist of obsessions.
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Card 2

Front

Used gene mapping, found that hoarding compulsions are linked to chromosome 14.

Back

OCD (Genetic): Samuels et al. (2007)

Card 3

Front

70 years of twin studies, found that symptoms were heritable; 45 - 65% genetic influence in children, 27 - 47% in adults.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Used family studies, found that 30% of an OCD sufferers first degree family also had the disorder.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

"There is no more evidence that patients with OCD have more or less serotonin than patients with other anxiety disorders or healthy controls".

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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