Occupational - work motivation

Definition of motivation
Motivation is made up of three components which are direction, effort and persistence (Arnold et al., 2016). Direction is what a person is trying to do. Effort is how hard a person is trying and persistence is how long a person continues trying
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What is intrinsically motivated work behaviour?
behaviour that is performed for its own sake (motivation that comes from actually performing the behaviour, sense of accomplishment and achievement derived from doing the work itself)
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What is extrinsically motivated work behaviour?
behaviour that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment (the motivation is the consequences of the behaviour and not the behaviour itself)
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Maslow, 1943
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs are addressed. Physiological needs, need for safety, belongingness needs, esteem needs, self actualization
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Alderfer, 1969
After lower level needs satisfied, person seeks higher needs. When unable to satisfy higher needs, lower needs motivation is raised. A person can be motivated by needs at more than one level at the same time.
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What is the ERG from Alderfer's theory, 1969
Existence, relatedness, growth
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Herzberg, 1959
Focuses on outcomes that lead to higher motivation & job satisfaction, & those outcomes that can prevent dissatisfaction. Unsatisfied hygiene needs create dissatisfaction; satisfaction of hygiene needs does not lead to motivation or job satisfaction
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Herzberg, 1959 - motivator needs
relate to the nature of the work itself: achievement, recognition, advancement, autonomy, responsibility, interesting work.
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Herzberg, 1959 - Hygiene needs
are related to the physical and psychological context of the work: company policy, supervision, relationship with boss, relationship with peers, comfortable work environment, pay, job security.
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McClelland, 1961
Need for achievement, need for affiliation, need for power
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McClelland, 1961 - need for achievement
A strong need to perform challenging tasks well and meet personal standards for excellence. High - must win at any cost; must be on top and receive credit. Low - fears failure; avoids responsibility
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McClelland, 1961 - need for affiliation
Concerned about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations, being liked, and having the people around him get along with each other. High - demands blind loyalty and harmony; does not tolerate disagreement. Low - remains aloof
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McClelland, 1961 - need for power
A desire to control or influence others. High - desires control of everyone and everything; exaggerates own position and resources. Low - dependent/subordinate; minimises own position and resources
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McGregor, 1960
Theory X and Theory Y
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McGregor, 1960 - Theory X
People cannot be trusted They are lazy, irrational, unreliable They need to be controlled, motivated by money and threatened by punishment. Without control they will pursue their own goals, which will be contrary to those of the organization
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McGregor, 1960 - Theory Y
People seek independence, self-development and creativity in their work They look beyond immediate circumstances and can adapt to new ones They are fundamentally moral and responsible people who will strive for the good of the organization if they ar
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Conclusions on need theories
A group of content theories about work motivation that focus on workers’ needs as the sources of motivation. A need is seen as an inbuilt drive within a person - usually part of his or her basic biological make-up
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Problems with Need Theories
Not specific about what behaviours and rewards satisfy which needs. Neglect the impact of the social context on people’s interpretation of their needs. People do not necessarily strive to move up the hierarchy - at least, not through their work
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Vroom, 1964
Expectancy (will my effort lead to high performance? x instrumentality (will performance lead to outcomes?) x valence (do I find the outcomes desirable?)
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Vroom, 1964 - valence
the desirability of an outcome to an individual
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Vroom, 1964 - instrumentality
a perception about the extent to which performance of one or more behaviours will lead to the attainment of a particular outcome.
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Vroom, 1964 - expectancy
a perception about the extent to which effort will result in a certain level of performance
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Locke, 1968
A theory that focuses on identifying the types of goals that are most effective in producing high levels of motivation and performance and why goals have these effects. SMART goals
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Locke, 1968 - Goal Setting Theory Conditions:
Goal acceptance and goal commitment Goal specificity Goal difficulty Feedback on progress toward the goal
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Locke, 1968 - SMART goals must be…
S - specific, simple, sensible, significant M - manageable, measureable, meaningful, A - agreed, attainable, acceptable, accountable R - realistic, relevant, rewarding, reasonable T - time bound, tangible, timely, truthful
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Adams, 1963
Focuses on people’s perceptions of the fairness (or lack of fairness) of their work outcomes in proportion to their work inputs. A relative outcome to input ratio comparison to oneself or to another person (referent) perceived as similar to oneself.
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Adams, 1963 - Equity Theory - equity exists when...
a person perceives that their outcome/input ratio to be equal to the referent’s ratio.
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Adams, 1963- Equity Theory - inequity exists when...
worker’s outcome/input ratio is not equal to referent.
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Adams, 1963 - Equity Theory - underpayment inequity
ratio is less than the referent.
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Adams, 1963 - Equity Theory - overpayment inequity
ratio is higher than the referent.
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Schaufeli et al. (2002)
Work engagement. Dedication, absorption, vigour
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Inceoglu & Fleck, 2010
The motivational continuum. Dispositional...situational. Dispositional - stable traits. Middle - feeling motivated - psychological state. Situational - motivated work behaviours - observable behaviours. Below - situational moderators e.g. work norms
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Hackman and Oldham, 1980
The Job Characteristics Theory. An approach to job design that aims to identify characteristics that make jobs intrinsically motivating and the consequences of those characteristics. Five ‘Core Job Dimensions’
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Hackman & Oldham, 1980 - The Job Characteristics Theory - Five ‘Core Job Dimensions’
Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback
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Employee Involvement (EI)
Describes those activities designed to increase the amount of information which employees receive about their organisation and to provide them with the opportunity to contribute to decisions – thereby increasing their commitment to the organisation
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Cotton, 1996
Characteristics of effective employee involvement practices - Focus on everyday work, not just on remote organisational issues. Employees make decisions. Allow for continual improvements instigated by the employees. Major changes in employee worklife
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EPOC, 1997
Employee involvement - Teamwork is one of the most effective forms of direct participation that can promote innovation, quality, productivity and a genuine redistribution of power
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Types of EI Schemes
Participative management Quality circles Gain sharing Workers’ councils and employee representatives Job enrichment Self-directed work teams Employee and share ownership
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Implications for Managers
Managers need to be aware that: People are motivated to work hard when they find their work intrinsically satisfying and it meets their personal needs There is some individual variation as to what people find motivating in their work place
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***Zhao & Chadwick, 2014***
Motivation matters. Showed that the motivation to develop new products is a stronger predictor of companies' success in doing so than the capabilities of staff
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***Russ, 2011***
Managers' beliefs in theory X and theory Y seem to be reflected in their behaviour: theory X adherents are less participative
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is intrinsically motivated work behaviour?

Back

behaviour that is performed for its own sake (motivation that comes from actually performing the behaviour, sense of accomplishment and achievement derived from doing the work itself)

Card 3

Front

What is extrinsically motivated work behaviour?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Maslow, 1943

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Alderfer, 1969

Back

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