Occupational - stress at work

Being able to...I,A,M
identify, avoid & manage workplace stressors to enhance employee well-being is not easy - but it is important
1 of 76
Stress-related illnesses caused by work are...
preventable. Employers have a legal responsibility to reduce or remove anything at work that could make you ill and that includes workplace stress.
2 of 76
***Cannon, 1929***
defined stress as the person's internal physiological state when experiencing threatening or exciting situations (e.g. fight or flight reaction)
3 of 76
***Cooper et al., 2001***
Stressors can be defined as the antecedent conditions that produce a strain within the individual
4 of 76
APA (2009)
found 65% of employees reported that work is a significant source of stress
5 of 76
Not everyone...
responds in same way to stress
6 of 76
Hans Selye (1907-1982)
General Adaptation Syndrome. Interested in relationship between stress&body’s immunological response to stress.model predicts when confronted with a threat,an individual responds instinctively in “fight or flight” All tolerate diff levels of stress
7 of 76
GAS Model – Three Steps to Stress...
1st Stage – Alarm, 2nd Stage – Resistance, 3rd Stage – Exhaustion
8 of 76
GAS Model – Three Steps to Stress - 1st stage
Alarm: Outside stressor detected, & body responds by preparing itself by increasing cortisol & adrenaline levels
9 of 76
GAS Model – Three Steps to Stress - 2nd stage
Resistance: Body continues to release cortisol, begins tapping stores of sugars, & then fats in order meet demands on ongoing stressor
10 of 76
GAS Model – Three Steps to Stress - 3rd stage
Exhaustion: Body run out of fats & sugars to draw on & long-term release of cortisol taken its toll – leaves individual weakened
11 of 76
Szabo et al. 2012
Health outcomes of stress - Linked to negative effects cardiovascular, renal & pulmonary systems
12 of 76
Health outcomes of stress
neurological changes caused by stress (as described by GAS framework) – especially in case of chronic stress – are correlated with many negative health outcomes, including Immunosuppression Melancholic depression Aneroxia nervosa (Tsigos et al. 2002
13 of 76
Lazarus & Folkman, 1984 - model
Transactional Model of Stress & Coping
14 of 76
Lazarus & Folkman, 1984 - Transactional Model of Stress & Coping - background
Why is that one person can work on lots of projects at work & show no signs of stress, where another person is working on one project & appears very stressed? Work by Lazarus and colleagues helped us understand this better
15 of 76
Lazarus & Folkman, 1984 - Transactional Model of Stress & Coping - explanation
stress not from the event itself but from one’s interpretation of the event, or.. ..appraisal of what the event means, and whether it is a threat, along with evaluation of what resources the person has with which to react to the event (Lazarus, 1999)
16 of 76
Lazarus & Folkman, 1984 - Transactional Model of Stress & Coping - coping
Coping follows appraisal & represents person’s emotional response to the events meaning People display differing coping strategies Stress, and coping with stress is a PROCESS
17 of 76
Lazarus & Folkman, 1984 - Transactional Model of Stress & Coping - what critics say of it
: i) of little applied use; ii) limited evidence found on what determines how well a person will cope (Dewe & Trenberth, 2004)
18 of 76
Steven Hobfoll (1989) - model
Conservation of Resources (COR) Model
19 of 76
Steven Hobfoll (1989) - Conservation of Resources Model - explanation
Stress set of resources that people seek to acquire & maintain in order to accommodate, withstand & overcome potential threats
20 of 76
Steven Hobfoll (1989) - Conservation of Resources Model - examples of resources
Home, clothing, living arrangements, financial security, personal characteristics (i.e., self-esteem & autonomy) and energies (i.e., time & knowledge)
21 of 76
Steven Hobfoll (1989) - Conservation of Resources Model - stress =
when loss of resources, or a threat of loss of resources which depletes your resources
22 of 76
Steven Hobfoll (1989) - Conservation of Resources Model - evaluation
Research support varies for model.Some critical that it is so broad&includes almost everything-argued to undermine its usefulness-as it is difficult to think of anything that might not fit the definition of stressor(Ganster&Perrewe, 2010)
23 of 76
Karasek, 1979 - model
Job Demands-Resources (JDR) Model
24 of 76
Karasek, 1979 - Job Demands-Resources Model - explanation
stress results from mismatches between job demands & the resources available to the employee; All jobs have demands requiring resources to be expended... Stress caused when demands outweigh resources of an employee
25 of 76
Karasek, 1979 - Job Demands-Resources Model - research
Research has been largely supportive e.g. Bakker et al. 2007, Tims et al. 2013
26 of 76
Bakker et al. 2007
research support for JDR model - Study of 800 Finnish teachers found stress levels depended on job resources available & their ability to deal with significant stress associated with disruptive students
27 of 76
Tims et al. 2013
research support for JDR-study on impact of job crafting on job resources found job crafting was positively related to employees’ increased resources & resulted in positive outcomes-increased work engagement & job satisfaction, & decreased burnout
28 of 76
Some common stressors
Role demands Information overload Work-life tradeoffs.Interpersonal challenges.physical stressors (i.e., noise), workload, work pace, work schedule, time rigidity, perceived control, emotional labour, & task content]
29 of 76
Role demands
At work we have a variety of roles, and expectations placed on us can be stressful Researchers have been active in studying such demands Role ambiguity: A lack of clarity regarding one’s work roles Role conflict:Having multiple contradictory demands
30 of 76
Role demands - research
Eatough, et al. 2011...Nixon, et al. 2011
31 of 76
Eatough, et al. 2011
role demands-research-Meta-analysis of 42 studies found role ambiguity negatively correlated with job satisfaction, which in turn predicted organizational citizenship behaviour(OCB).Role conflict was negatively associated with job satisfaction & OCB
32 of 76
Nixon, et al. 2011
role demands-research-meta-analysis-relationship between occupational stressors&physiological symptoms-found role conflict had significant association with 5 out of 8 physical symptoms studied,including back pain,gastro problems&sleep disturbances.
33 of 76
Information Overload
All the “being available” 24/7 is leading to information overload = being exposed to too much information or data. 50% queried said they had been sent work emails from bosses after hours, including evenings, weekends & while on holiday (Gibson, 2014
34 of 76
Konig et al.2005
Information overload. Inability to ‘unplug’ from so much information actually impacts on effective performance at work...because multi-tasking & fragmented attention is related to decrease in focus, efficiency & mental acuity
35 of 76
Information overload - movement
Large organisations e.g.,VW&Deutsche Telekom have moved towards stopping evening emails.Others in both France&Germany have started to look at no email after 6pm&email free Fridays.Daimler Group-working on the elimination of Vacation Email overload
36 of 76
Work-Life Tradeoffs
Only so many hours in a day & only so much energy to everything we want/ need to do. As a caregiver to children, aging parents or other dependents – then there is even less time for oneself!
37 of 76
Work-Life Tradeoffs - commonly studied
One commonly studied is work-family conflict = when demands from work & non-work domains negatively affect on another
38 of 76
Work-Life Tradeoffs - work-family conflict
related to many important outcomes Decreased work & life satisfaction (Kossek & Ozek, 1998) Decreased self-assessed & general work performance (Gilboa et al. 2008) Increased feelings of negative emotions such as guilt & hostility (Judge et al. 2006)
39 of 76
Work-Life Tradeoffs - work-family conflict - Allen et al., 2012
Risk factors for experiencing work-to-family conflict&family-to-work conflict-include neuroticism&negative affect...while internal locus of control,optimisim,higher self-efficacy&positive affect-linked with lower levels of work-family conflict
40 of 76
Allen & Kibruz (2012)
Work-Life Tradeoffs - work-family conflict -Mindfulness may help working parents
41 of 76
Interpersonal Challenges
Interpersonal stress stemming from conflicts with managers is commonplace (Skakon et al. 2010) Forms of interpersonal stressors can be serious such as bullying or an abusive supervisor Co-workers and customers can also be a source of stress
42 of 76
Yang et al., 2014
Interpersonal Challenges - A climate of mistreatment – an organizational climate that supports bullying and aggression, can lead to increased strain & more negative job attitudes
43 of 76
***Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015***
Stress can lead to elevated adrenaline levels, blood cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure
44 of 76
Stress (particularly increased cortisol levels caused by stress) is related to higher incidence of illness & disease, including:
Type II diabetes (Lundberg, 2005)
45 of 76
Other research links job stress to:
Alcohol & tabacco misuse (Peltzer et al. 2009). Insomnia (Yeh et al. 2010)
46 of 76
***Mikkelsen & Einarsen, 2001***
Acute bullying, in the workplace, even a single incident, is associated with strong negative emotions. At the individual level, impacts can include depression
47 of 76
***Bannai & Tamakoshi, 2014***
Psychological Consequences of Job Stress - found that working beyond 40 hours a week was associated with poor psychological health (depression and anxiety)
48 of 76
Psychological consequences of job stress - rumination
Those who ruminate over problems such as being evaluated have greater difficulty learning new tasks (Watson et al. 2013)
49 of 76
Wang et al. 2013
Psychological consequences of job stress - rumination - Ruminating at night about past events – such as negative customer interactions can even affect your mood the next day! (and not in a good way)
50 of 76
Tang et al. 2001
Study of Chinese teachers found employee’ pro-activity & self-efficacy had a negative correlation with burnout; which in turn linked to negative mental health outcomes
51 of 76
Behavioural consequences of stress
Withdrawal from the organization: could be – lack of engagement, tardiness, absenteeism, or even leaving the organization (Podsakoff et al. 2007)
52 of 76
Crawford, 2014
Survey of 2,000 then 20% reported they had taken time off due to work stress
53 of 76
McFarlin & Fals-Stewart, 2002
behavioural consequences of stress - Employees are twice as likely to be absent the from work after consuming alcohol previous day
54 of 76
Liu et al. 2009
behavioural consequences of stress-Research from China found after a stressful day, employees more likely to increase amount of alcohol they drank that night. Each additional stressor increased their desire to drink more, leading greater consumption
55 of 76
Creating Healthy Work Environments
Job & work design – creating, or improving jobs so that they have clear expectations, & provide autonomy.
56 of 76
Grandey & Diamond (2010)
creating healthy work environments - jobs where employees interact with customers can relate to sense of accomplishment & higher job satisfaction – but can also be related to negative outcomes like anger & burnout
57 of 76
Job Crafting
celebrates notion that employees are not passive recipients of jobs-but often take actions to shape their roles to fit personality,interests&capabilities.Organisations can allow&encourage this;so employees manage their stress-focusing on what good at
58 of 76
Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001
Job Crafting: employees’ proactive attempts at changing the cognitive, task, and/or relational boundaries of their jobs to shape roles & relationships at work
59 of 76
Houshmand et al. 2012
Research across 41 hospital units with 357 nurses shows that simply witnessing bullying can traumatize bystanders
60 of 76
Open offices
office setting where employees work together with no walls or cubicles between them
61 of 76
Konnikova, 2014
Open offices - Research on negative outcomes this style of work environment has on stress levels indicates they are not healthy work environments... Lead to higher stress & lower job satisfaction due to less privacy & more chaotic work environments
62 of 76
Evans & Johnson, 2000
Open offices - Negative impact of even low-level noise is compelling
63 of 76
Sonnentag & Fritz, 2007
recovery opportunities - Employees who are able to “unwind” when not working are healthier & have better well-being than those who do not
64 of 76
Makkiangas et al. 2014
recovery opportunities - Finnish study of 256 employees found successful recovery was key factor to high energy levels
65 of 76
Examples of recovery activities
Sabbaticals Vacations Personal days (not illness or vacation) Evenings. Naps! Micro-breaks
66 of 76
Employee Assistance Programmes can help with
conflict, productivity, stressful life events, financial challenges, alcohol & drug dependency & other types of counselling
67 of 76
SHRM, 2014
74% of all companies surveyed offered an employee assistance programme
68 of 76
***Parks & Steelman, 2008***
Large-scale reviews of the research evidence have found that wellness programmes (i.e. reduced gym membership, smoking cessation, meditation) significantly decrease absence and increase job satisfaction
69 of 76
APA, 2013
survey found 84% participants reported stress equal to, or greater than previous year...Only 35% thought they were managing their stress levels well
70 of 76
***Derks et al., 2014***
effect of work-related smartphone use on daily recovery from work-related efforts was investigated, it was found that smartphone users facing high work-home interference were not successful in engaging in recovery activities compared to control group
71 of 76
***Nielsen et al., 2010 - background***
Interventions in organisations often fail to achieve the desired outcomes,however the reasons for-unclear.Nielson et al(2010)paper-3 problems considered in future intervention research to increase understanding of the effectiveness of interventions
72 of 76
***Nielsen et al., 2010 - 1st suggestion***
it is important to understand how and why interventions work
73 of 76
***Nielsen et al., 2010 - 2nd suggestion***
Consideration should be given to the appropriateness of interventions
74 of 76
***Nielsen et al., 2010 - 3rd suggestion***
Using a quasi-experimental study design does not ensure a valid representation of the effectiveness of an intervention.
75 of 76
***Nielsen et al., 2010 - conclusion***
The authors concluded that mixed methods designs are required to integrate process&outcome evaluation& increase the generalizability of interventions.
76 of 76

Other cards in this set

Card 2


Stress-related illnesses caused by work are...


preventable. Employers have a legal responsibility to reduce or remove anything at work that could make you ill and that includes workplace stress.

Card 3


***Cannon, 1929***


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


***Cooper et al., 2001***


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


APA (2009)


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Ancient History resources:

See all Ancient History resources »See all q resources »