observations

  • Created by: xopriya
  • Created on: 07-12-18 16:45
what is an observation?
a way of seeing or listening to what people do without having to ask them
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advantage of observations
can capture unexpected behaviour- people often act differently from how they say they will in self-report methods.
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disadvantage of observations
risk of observer bias- researcher's interpretation of the situation may be affected by expectations.
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what is a naturalistic observation?
it takes place where they target behaviour would normally occur.
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advantage of naturalistic observation
high external validity-more generalisable to everyday life
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disadvantage of naturalistic observation
low control- more be uncontrolled extraneous variables
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what is a controlled observation?
where there is some control/manipulation of variables including control of extraneous variables
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advantage of controlled observation
can be replicated- more easily replicated due to standardised procedures
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disadvantage of controlled observation
may have low external validity- findings cannot not applied to everyday experience
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what is a covert observation?
where participants are unaware they are being studied
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advantage of covert observation
demand characteristics reduced- increases the validity of the findings
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disadvantage of covert observation
ethically questionable- people may not want behaviour recorded
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what is an overt observation?
where participants are aware of being studied
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advantage of overt observation
more ethically acceptable- they have given consent to be studied
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disadvantage of overt observation
demand characteristics- reduces the validity of the findings
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what is a participant observation?
when the researcher becomes part of the group they are studying
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advantage of participant observation
can lead to greater insight- this enhances the validity of the findings
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disadvantage of participant observation
possible loss of objectivity- researcher may identify too strongly with those they are studying which threatens the validity
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what is a non-participant observation
when the researcher remains separate from the group
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advantage of non-participant observation
more objective- may increase validity of the findings
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disadvantage of non-participant observation
loss of insight- may reduce the validity of the findings
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what are behavioural categories
the target behaviour to be observed should be broken up into a set of observable categories.
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2 disadvantages of behavioural categories
difficult to make clear and ambiguous / dustbin categories- some behaviours go unrecorded
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what is time sampling
when observations are made at regular intervals
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advantage of time sampling
reduces the number of observations- more structured and systematic
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disadvantage of time sampling
may be unrepresentative- may not reflect the whole behaviour
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what is event sampling?
when a target behaviour/event is recorded every time it occurs
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advantage of event sampling
may record infrequent behaviour- may be otherwise missed
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disadvantage of event sampling
complex behaviour oversimplified- may affect the validity of the findings
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Card 2

Front

advantage of observations

Back

can capture unexpected behaviour- people often act differently from how they say they will in self-report methods.

Card 3

Front

disadvantage of observations

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is a naturalistic observation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

advantage of naturalistic observation

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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