Obedience

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What does obedience mean?
Following orders or commands from people in authority.
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What does defiance mean?
Resisting order or commands from people in authority.
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What does denial of responsibility mean?
Blaming actions on a higher authority rather than accepting blame.
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What is the core theory called?
Situational factors.
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Who did the core theory?
Milgram and Hofling.
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What are the 5 key words?
1. Setting. 2. Culture. 3. Authority. 4. Punishment. 5. Consensus.
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What does setting mean?
The environment they are in.
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What does culture mean?
Obedience in different cultures change.
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What does authority mean?
Power someone has.
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What did Milgram do?
Asked opportunity sample in a run down building and a high top university in America, to give an electric shock every time the man got the questions wrong.
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What does punishment mean?
They obey the order or command to avoid the punishment.
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What does consensus mean?
Doing what the whole group does.
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What did Hofling do?
He asked 22 nurses to give a double dose (20mlgs) of Astrofen. Said they would loose their job if they didn't obey.
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Relate Migram's and Hofling's experiment to setting.
Milgram: run down office - low obedience. 47.5%. Hofling: in a highly represented place, obedience increases, 21 out of 22 obeyed.
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Relate Migram's and Hofling's experiment to culture.
Milgram: Different culture cause different amounts of obedience. Hofling: Nurses obey doctors.
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Relate Milgram's and Hofling's experiment to authority.
Milgram: experimentor left room and controls by phone, first time experimenter stayed in the room. Hofling: The doctor has authority.
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Relate Milgram's and Hofling's experiment to punishment.
Hofling: Lose jobs.
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Relate Milgram's and Hofling's experiment to consensus.
MIlgram: confederate says not at 150volts and 250volts, causes 10% decrease in obedience. Hofling: Everyone but 1 obeyed.
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Give a criticism.
Milgram wasn't believable - getting volts for simple questions wrong - Lacks ecological validity.
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Give another criticism.
Milgram gave people distress as it is harming people and lying to them - unethical. (distress)
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Give a final criticism.
The role of personality as it wasn't important in the experiment. It ignores: feelings, ambitions and frustration - not generlisable.
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What is the alternative theory called?
The dispositional theory.
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What does it take into consideration?
The personality of the individual is more important.
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What is the main point in this theory?
The Authoritarian Personality.
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What is authoritarian personality?
The personality correlates with harsh parenting. They have unconscious hostility(anger and aggression they are unaware of). They cannot disobey their parents as they are too fearful. When they become adults, they obey higher authority and disobey low
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Give 4 traits of this type of personality.
1. Active dislike to lower social classes. 2. Who knows what is wrong and right/ good and bad. 3. Does not uncertainty. 4. Very obedient to authority.
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Who did the core study? Date?
Bickman. 1974
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Give the procedure.
Male dresses up as Milkman, guard and civilian. Asks opportunity sample if: they could pick up litter, give a coin for parking and stand the other side of the bus stop.
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What type of experiment was it?
Field experiment.
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Who were the participants?
153 Americans, New York.
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Give the results.
Guard was most obedient (89%), then the milkman (57%) and then, the civilian (33%).
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Relate this study to culture.
Different people will or will not of obeyed - didn't know background story like: if they were in a rush.
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Relate this study to authority.
Guard - most, civilian - least.
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Relate this study to punishment.
May feel like they will get told off if they didn't obey guard.
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Give a criticism.
Only males, gender bias - generlisable.
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Give another criticism.
Field experiment, reduces validity - high ecological validity.
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Give a final criticism.
Unethical, lied to participants - reductionist.
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Give the name of the applications.
Keeping order in institutions.
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What are the applications?
Keeping order in prisons, keeping order in armed forces and keeping order in schools.
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Relate the application to setting.
In an enclosed environment.
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Relate the applications to culture.
You obey as it is a highly represented place.
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Relate the applications to authority.
Different levels of authority has different uniforms.
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Relate the applications to punishment.
Don't obey: punishment - loss of privileges. Obey: rewarded - let out early.
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Relate applications to consensus.
Not too big a groups for too long as they don't want them rebelling.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does defiance mean?

Back

Resisting order or commands from people in authority.

Card 3

Front

What does denial of responsibility mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the core theory called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who did the core theory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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