Nutrients

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Protein
Growth, repair and maintenance of body cells. Excess is broken down and used as a secondary source of energy.
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Fats
Provide a concentrated source of energy. Form an insulating layer underneath the skin and so help to maintain body temperature.
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Saturated Fats
Raise blood cholesterol levels increasing the risk of heart disease. The LDL (low density lipoprotein - bad) sticks to artery walls, increasing the risk of blood clots and blockage of the artery.
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Monounsaturated Fats
Remain liquid at room temperature, but start to solidify when chilled. Reduce the bad LDL cholesterol. They also maintain or slightly increase the good (HDL - moves bad cholesterol away from arteries).
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Polyunsaturated Fats
Remain liquid at both room temperature and cold temperatures. Help to bring down blood cholesterol levels.There are specific polyunsaturates which are vital for health and cannot be made in the body.
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Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs)
Specific polyunsaturates which are vital for health and cannot be made in the body, must be obtained from food.
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EFA - Omega 3 (Linolenic acid)
Reduces the risk of blood clots forming, so reducing the risk of a heart attack. It may also reduce the incidence of inflammatory diseases, such rheumatoid arthritis.
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EFA- Omega 6 (Linoleic acid)
Decreases bad cholesterol, but too much may also decrease good cholesterol levels. Both Omega 3 & 6 which are found in breast milk are needed for brain development in babies.
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Trans fatty acids
Polyunsaturated fats artificially hardened by hydrogenation - extra hydrogen added to improve texture/flavour. Cause increased risk of heart disease/cancers as LDL is increased and HDL is decreased.
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Carbohydrates
Supply energy for all activities & energy to maintain normal body temperature. Supply indigestible fibrous material to aid digestion (NSP).
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Intinsic sugars
Naturally occuring - Form part of the cell structure of plants (fruits)
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Extrinsic sugars
(Non-milk extrinsic)NME sugars - Refined sugar, sugar added to foods
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Monosaccharides
Single-unit carbohydrates or simple sugars. Glucose, Fructose & Galactose
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Disaccharides
Sugars made of two monosaccharides joined together. Sucrose, Lactose, & Maltose.
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Polysaccharides
Starches or complex carbohydrates. Starches & NSP.
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Starches
Good sources of other nutrients such as potatoes -vitamin C, bread- protein, calcium and iron. They do not encourage tooth decay.Most provide substantial amounts of NSP and water.
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Vitamin A
Assists with good vision, particularly in dim light. Required for normal growth in children. Helps keep mucous membranes moist and free from infection.
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Vitamin B1 (thiamin)
Release of energy from carbohydrates. Needed for normal growth of children.
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Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
Release of carbohydrates from carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Essential for normal growth.
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Vitamin B3 (niacin)
Release of energy from carbohydrates. Essential for healthy skin and nerves.
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Vitamin B12
Heps prevent certain form of anaemia. Protects the nervous system.
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Folic acid (folate)
Prevention of neural tube defects such as spina bifida in unborn babies. Formation of red blood cells. Essential for normal growth
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Vitamin C
Helps absorption of iron - prevention of anaemia. Helps cuts and wounds to heal quicker.
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Vitamin D
Required for absorption of calcium. Promotes quicker healing of bone fractures. Acts with calcium and phosphorus to form strong bones and teeth.
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Vitamin E
Involved in maintenance of cell membranes. Antioxidant vitamin - helps to prevent certain cancers/heart disease.
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Vitamin K
Ensures that blood clots after injuries, preventing harmful blood loss
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Antioxidant vitamins
ACE vitamins. Form a defence system against free radicals reducing serious damage to cells -preventing heart disease/cancers. Help to maintain a healthy immune system.
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Calcium
Combines with phosphorus to make calcium phosphate- gives hardness and strength to bones and teeth. Helps blood to clot aften an injury. Required for maintencance of bones and teeth.
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Phosphorus
Combines with calcium to make calcium phosphate- for formation, development and maintenance of bones and teeth. Required for the release of energy from body cells.
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Iron
Formation of red blood cells. Component of haemoglobin- required for the transport of oxygen around the body, preventing tiredness and anaemia.
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Sodium
Essential for maintaining the correct balance of fluid in the body. Required for correct muscle and nerve activity, preventing muscle cramps.
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Water
Required for all body fluids. Assists in the excretion of waste faeces by combining with NSP, preventing constipation. Lubricates joints and membranes.
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NSP
Aids in the removal of harmful or toxic waste products from the body. Provides bulk to faeces allowing them to pass through the intestine by peristalsis. Prevention of consipation, diverticular disease, bowel cancer and piles. Fuller for longer.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Provide a concentrated source of energy. Form an insulating layer underneath the skin and so help to maintain body temperature.

Back

Fats

Card 3

Front

Raise blood cholesterol levels increasing the risk of heart disease. The LDL (low density lipoprotein - bad) sticks to artery walls, increasing the risk of blood clots and blockage of the artery.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Remain liquid at room temperature, but start to solidify when chilled. Reduce the bad LDL cholesterol. They also maintain or slightly increase the good (HDL - moves bad cholesterol away from arteries).

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Remain liquid at both room temperature and cold temperatures. Help to bring down blood cholesterol levels.There are specific polyunsaturates which are vital for health and cannot be made in the body.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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