Nutrients

  • Created by: anna10g
  • Created on: 12-03-18 19:08
What are nutrients?
chemical substances found in food which are used by the human body
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Why are some nutrients non-essential?
Another nutrient can be used instead, or because they can be made by the body using another nutrient
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Give an example of a non essential nutrient and explain why.
Carbohydrates because lipids can be used for respiration instead
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What are Vitamins?
chemically diverse carbon compounds that cannot be synthesised by the body
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Name a conditionally essential nutrient. Why is it conditionally essential?
Vitamin K is produced by symbiotic bacteria in the intestine. Infants do not have these at birth, so need to source vitamin K differently
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Which vitamins are fat soluble?
A, E, D, K
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Which vitamins are water soluble?
B (1-3, 5-7, 9, 12)
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What are dietary minerals?
inorganic essential chemical elements
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What is the result of iodine deficiency?
Thyroxin, a hormone which controls metabolism, is not produced at a sufficient rate, resulting in weight gain, tiredness and mood swings
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Why does scurvy affect the gums, bones, skin, teeth and hair?
Vitamin C contributes to the formation of collagen
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Define Malnutrition
deficiency, imbalance or excess in one or more essential nutrients resulting in physiological consequences
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What can cause malnutrition? (5)
poor diet, starvation, eating disorders, problems with digesting or absorbing nutrients from food, medical conditions which make a person unable to eat
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Which fatty acids are essential?
Omega 3 and Omega 6
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Why is omega 9 non-essential?
We can make it; as long as we get omegas 3 and 6
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What are the effects of protein deficiency malnutrition? (3)
lack of plasma proteins, fluid retained in tissues (oedema), stunted growth and developmental difficulties in children
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Which 3 hormones affect appetite?
PYY3-36, Insulin, Leptin
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Where is PYY3-36 secreted from?
small intestine
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Where is Insulin secreted from?
Pancreas
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Where is leptin secreted from?
Adipose Tissue
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Which 3 hormones regulate blood glucose?
Insulin, Glucagon, Adrenalin
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Where is Insulin secreted from and what is its effect on blood glucose?
Secreted from pancreatic beta cells of Islets of Langerhans, Lowers blood glucose levels
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Where is Glucagon secreted from and what is its effect on blood glucose?
Secreted from pancreatic alpha cells of Islets of Langerhans, raises blood glucose levels
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Where is Adrenalin secreted from and what is its effect on blood glucose?
Secreted from adrenal glands, increases blood sugar
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Define Calorie
One calorie is the amount of energy that will raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 ' C
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Card 2

Front

Why are some nutrients non-essential?

Back

Another nutrient can be used instead, or because they can be made by the body using another nutrient

Card 3

Front

Give an example of a non essential nutrient and explain why.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are Vitamins?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name a conditionally essential nutrient. Why is it conditionally essential?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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