Nutrient Cycles

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What is Ammonification
Production of ammonium ions from ammonium containing molecules such as proteins, using saprobiotic organisms
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What is Nitrification
Conversion of ammonium ions to nitrates. This is oxidation and is done by nitrifying bacteria. Oxygen is required for this process.
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How does atmospheric nitrogen enter the nitrogen cycle
Lightning passes through the air or nitrogen fixation by bacteria.
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What do free living nitrogen fixing bacteria do
Reduce gaseous nitrogen to ammonia
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What do mutualistic nitrogen fixing bacteria do
Reduce gaseous nitrogen to amino acids which are taken up by plants in exchange for carbohydrates
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Under what conditions does denitrification occur
In anaerobic conditions when soils become waterlogged.
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What occurs during denitrification
There in an increase in anaerobic denitrifying bacteria which convert soil nitrates to gaseous nitrogen
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What is a natural fertiliser
Fertiliser made up of dead and decaying material such as remains of plants and animals including animal waste products
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What is artificial fertiliser
Fertiliser made up of rocks which have been mined. Different forms can be created by blending together different proportions of rocks to provide a good balance of minerals for crops.
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State the effects of nitrogen fertilisers
Reduced species diversity as the growth of rapidly growing species is favoured e.g. grasses. Leaching which leads to the pollution of water courses and eutrophication.
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Summarise the process of eutrophication
Algal bloom prevents light reaching lower layers of a river, plants at lower depth die. Saprobiotic algae grown exponentially, producing an increased demand for oxygen. Aerobic organisms such as fish die due to lack of oxygen. Toxic wastes released.
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What are the consequences of global warming
Melting of polar ice caps, rise in sea level, less rainfall making growth of crops more difficult. Life cycles and population of insect pests would need altering.
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Why has the level of carbon dioxide increased
Combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation
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Card 2

Front

What is Nitrification

Back

Conversion of ammonium ions to nitrates. This is oxidation and is done by nitrifying bacteria. Oxygen is required for this process.

Card 3

Front

How does atmospheric nitrogen enter the nitrogen cycle

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do free living nitrogen fixing bacteria do

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What do mutualistic nitrogen fixing bacteria do

Back

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