Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids

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  • Created by: fjhcab
  • Created on: 20-03-16 16:56
Nucleotide
Made from a pentose sugar, a nitrogenous base & a phosphate group
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DNA
Made from deoxyribose, a phosphate group & a base (adenine, thymine, cytosine or guanine). Made of 2 polynucleotides which are antiparallel
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RNA
Made from ribose, a phosphate group & a base (adenine, uracil, cytosine or guanine). Made from 1 polynucleotide
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ADP
Contains the base adenine, a sugar ribose & 2 phosphate groups
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ATP
Contains the base adenine, a sugar ribose & 3 phosphate groups
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Purine
A base that contains 2 carbon-nitrogen rings joined together (adenine & guanine)
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Pyrimidine
A base that contains 1 carbon-nitrogen ring (cytosine & thymine)
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Polynucleotides
Form where nucleotides join together between the phosphate group and the sugar creating a phosphodiester bond
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Self-Replication
DNA copies itself before cell division.
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Process of Self-Replication
DNA helices breaks hydrogen bonds. Helix unzips. Original stand acts as a template. Free nucleotides join exposed bases by CBP. New strand are then joined together by DNA polymerase. Each molecule has 1 new stand & 1 original
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Protein Synthesis
DNA too large to leave nucleus, so section copied into mRNA (Transcription). mRNA leave nucleus & joins with ribosome (Translation)
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Messenger RNA (mRNA)
Made in nucleus. 3 adjacent bases are codons. Carries genetic info from DNA to cytoplasm where its used to make a protein
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Transfer RNA (tRNA)
Found in cytoplasm. Has an amino acid binding site at 1 end and an anticodon at the other. Carries amino acids that are used to make proteins to the ribosome during (translation)
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Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Forms 2 subunits in ribosomes. Helps catalyse formation of peptide bond between amino acids
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Transcription
RNA polymerase (PME) attaches to double helix. Hydrogen bonds break, separating strands & DNA uncoils. 1 stand then used as a template to make an mRNA copy. RNA PME lines up free nucleotides, CBP means mRNA is complementary. Once paired they join...
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Transcription 2
...together to form mRNA molecule. RNA PME moves along separating stand & forming mRNA strand. Hydrogen bonds reform so coils back in a double helix. When it reaches stop codon it detaches. mRNA move out of nucleus & attaches to ribsome
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Translation
mRNA attaches to ribosome & tRNA carry amino acids to it. tRNA then attaches to mRNA by CBP. This continues. rRNA catalyses formation of peptide bond. Joins amino acids together. 1st tRNA moves away leaving amino acid behind. 3rd tRNA binds to .....
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Translation 2
next codon on mRNA . Its amino acid binds to 1st & 2nd tRNA moves away. This continues until stop codon . Polypeptide chain moves away from ribosome
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Made from deoxyribose, a phosphate group & a base (adenine, thymine, cytosine or guanine). Made of 2 polynucleotides which are antiparallel

Back

DNA

Card 3

Front

Made from ribose, a phosphate group & a base (adenine, uracil, cytosine or guanine). Made from 1 polynucleotide

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Contains the base adenine, a sugar ribose & 2 phosphate groups

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Contains the base adenine, a sugar ribose & 3 phosphate groups

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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