Nucleid Acids and their functions

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  • Created by: zoolouise
  • Created on: 27-03-16 17:20
What are nucleic acids and what are some examples?
Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides. These are DNA, RNA and ATP.
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What are polynucleotides?
Polynucleotides are many nucleotides together.
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How are the components combined?
The three components are combined by a condensation reaction.
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What is a nucleotide made up of?
A phosphate group, a pentose sugar and an organic base (nitrogenous base)
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What are the two types of organic bases?
Pyrimide bases - thymine (T), cytosine (C) and uracil (U). Purine bases - adenine (A) and guanine (G).
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What must happen for reactions to occur?
Bonds must make or break
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How do heterotrophic and autotrophic organisms get chemical energy?
Heterotrophic organisms get their chemical energy from food. Autotrophic organisms get their chemical energy from light energy.
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Where do organisms store chemical energy?
In lipids and carbohydrates.
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What molecule makes energy available to use?
ATP
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How much ATP does the body contain?
The body contains about 5g of ATP but makes and breaks down 50kg of ATP per day, it's always using ATP up and constantly replenishing.
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What is ATP made up of?
Adenosine = adenine and ribose. Triphosphate = 3 phosphate groups.
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What happens when energy is needed?
ATPase hydrolyses the bond between the second and third phosphate groups in ATP, removing it and leaving only two phosphate groups. ATP is hydrolysed into ADP and an inorganic phosphate ion so chemical energy is released.
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How much energy is released for every mole of ATP hydrolysed?
30.6kJ
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What's the addition of phosphate to ADP called?
phosphorlyation
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What does ATP do?
Transfers free energy from compounsd such as glucose to cellular reactions where energy is needed.
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Why is energy released gradually?
If energy was released in an uncontrolled way the temperature would increase and destroy living cells, therefore it's gradual in series of small steps called respiration, producing ATP.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are polynucleotides?

Back

Polynucleotides are many nucleotides together.

Card 3

Front

How are the components combined?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a nucleotide made up of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the two types of organic bases?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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