Nucleic Acids

  • Created by: elx
  • Created on: 12-05-17 13:07
What are the components of a DNA nucleotide?
Deoxyribose sugar, phosphate group and nitrogeneous base (thymine, guanine, adenine, cytosine)
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What are the components of an RNA nucleotide?
Ribose sugar, phosphate group and nitrogeneous base (uraci, guanine, adenine, cytosine)
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What are the diffences between DNA and RNA?
RNA=ribose but DNA=deoxyribose, RNA=uracil but DNA=thymine, RNA=single strand but DNA=double strand, RNA=3 forms (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA) but DNA=1 form (DNA)
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What are the roles of RNA in the cell?
Protein synthesis, DNA cannot leave nucleus so mRNA copies genes and leave the nucleus by the nuclear pore goes to ribosomes on the rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes made of rRNA for synthesis of polypeptides, tRNA brings amino acids to ribosome
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What does a gene code for?
The primary structure of a protein
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What is protein synthesis?
mRNA makes complementary copy of genes by complementary base pairing and leaves nucleus by pore, mRNA attches to ribosome (made of rRNA) and tRNA brings amino acids, peptide bonds form between AA and primary structure made
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What base pairs match in transcription?
A=U, T=A, G=C, C=G
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What effect would a change int he DNA sequence have?
There would be a different sequence of amino acids (primary), protein folds up differently (secondary) so protein does not funtion properly
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How is DNA replicated?
Semi-conservative, DNA untwists and H bonds break, strands act as template an complementary base pairing occurs, H bonds reform and phosphodiester bonds form between sugars and phosphate groups, each molecule 1 old 1 new strand
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How many hydrogen bonds are between pairs of bases?
C=G is 3 H bonds, A=T is 2 H bonds
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Why is DNA replication semi-conservative?
The original DNA strand acts as a templet, new molecule has 1 old strand and 1 new strand, new strands are genetically identical due to complementary base pairing
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Why is complementary base pairing important?
It means DNA can be replicated without error, reduced occurrence of mutations and allows re-formation of hydrogen bonds
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the components of an RNA nucleotide?

Back

Ribose sugar, phosphate group and nitrogeneous base (uraci, guanine, adenine, cytosine)

Card 3

Front

What are the diffences between DNA and RNA?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the roles of RNA in the cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does a gene code for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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